Articles, Conference and Workshop Papers Collection

Permanent URI for this collectionhttp://


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 18 of 18
  • Item
    Supporting policy research to inform agricultural policy in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia - Irrigation and water use efficiency in Sub-Saharan Africa
    (Gates Foundation, 2019) Kadigi, Reuben M.J.; Tesfay, Girmay; Bizoza, Alfred; Zinabou, Genet; Zilberman, David
    Food production in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is almost entirely rain-fed with irrigation playing a minor role. This is unfortunate because wider use of the region’s ample water resources would give a substantial boost to production of food staples and high value export crops. Recognizing this, governments in SSA and donor agents have placed various levels of emphasis on irrigation development since the 1960s. Yet, there are many challenges that are already confronting irrigation development and that will become steadily more acute as population growth and climate change place added stresses on the available freshwater resources. These challenges include: the allocation of water across competing users and uses; the appropriate pricing of water resources; the efficient harvesting and utilization of water; along with a whole range of other management issues. To address these hurdles, some SSA governments have gone relatively far in decentralizing irrigation management, and encouraging the participation of private sector in new development and maintenance of irrigation systems. Other governments have continued to operate large and centrally managed command-and-control systems for water allocation. What has worked, what has not worked and why remains an important question to be answered, as it will help inform strategies for sustainable future management and utilization of water resources in SSA’s agricultural sector. This paper attempts to address this need by surveying past irrigation policy in the sub-continent, identifying the major challenges and hurdles encountered, and highlighting both successes and failures. An argument is made on the need to adopt more flexible and holistic approaches to governance of irrigation water, support farmer and private sector involvement in a move towards commercial agriculture, target irrigation investments where pay- offs are substantial and realistic, and contextualize irrigation as part of a larger policy package to improve agricultural productivity.
  • Item
    Global soybean trade
    (UKRI-GCRF TRADE HUB Project, 2020) Marcello, De Maria; Robinson, Elizabeth J.; Kangile, Joseph Rajabu; Kadigi, Reuben; Dreoni, Ilda; Couto, Matheus; Howai, Niko; Peci, Jurgen; Fiennes, Sicily
    With a diameter of only 5 to 11 millimetres on average, it is fascinating to think how soybean is currently affecting – and affected by – changes in economy, environment and society, both at the global and at the local level. Bearing in mind the main objective of the Trade Hub project and the specific contribution of Work Package 4, the present Scoping Study analyses the evolution of the ‘geopolitics’ of international trade flows, dissecting social, institutional, economic and environmental outcomes along the value chain of this commodity. Originally cultivated in China more than 3000 years ago (Hymowitz, 1970), soybean today is a global commodity, with 170 countries directly taking part – either as importers, exporters or both – to international trade flows in 2017 (Figure 11). The industrial and the agrarian revolution not only contributed to reshaping the traditional geography of soybean diffusion, production and consumption all over the world, but also ignited another fundamental shift for this crop: from a food staple traditionally grown and consumed in China and Eastern Asia for thousands of years, by the 20 th Century soybean had turned into a versatile and globally demanded cash crop, with a new production centre based in the USA (Prodöhl, 2019). Production rates increased constantly over time, often faster than the world population growth rate, with a further acceleration in soybean production volumes from the beginning of the new millennium. Driven by the Chinese economic boom and by their renewed appetite for soybean, and sustained by the rapid expansion of the production in countries such as Argentina and Brazil, the world’s production doubled since the early 2000’s, with about 350 million tons harvested over almost 125 million hectares in 2018 (Figure 2 and Figure 3). The extraordinary expansion of soybean production, harvested area and trade volumes in the last two decades undoubtedly created economic benefits, but it also raised awareness over the negative impacts of this sector on environment and society (Fearnside, 2001; Brown, 2012a; Garrett, Rueda and Lambin, 2013; Fehlenberg et al., 2017; Sun et al., 2018; He et al., 2019), leading to a global call for a sustainable shift in the soybean industry (KPMG International Cooperative, 2013; Boerema et al., 2016; Kastens et al., 2017; RTRS, 2017; Wu et al., 2020). This report takes stock of the existing literature and data, analysing the evolution of global soybean trade flows and the related implications for society and environment. Following the approach proposed by De Maria (2019) and adapting it to the specific focus of this scoping study, we organised this study around a number of distinct but intertwined thematic areas: History, Economics, Environment, People and Institutions. In order to take into account not only the global dynamics, but also the peculiarity of the local contexts, we present short country-specific sections for Tanzania, China and Brazil. We then lay out a set of open questions, as well as our strategy to address them in the future, before offering some concluding remarks.
  • Item
    Assessment of operationalization of Ihemi and Mbarali Cluster development frameworks: Lesson Learnt
    (WWF – Tanzania Country Office, 2021) Dr. Nyamoga, Greyson Z.; Eng. Dr. Silungwe, Festo R.; Prof. Abdallah, Jummane M.; Prof. Kashaigili, Japhet J.; Prof. Kadigi, Reuben M.J.
    The WWF-CARE Alliance commissioned a consultancy assignment to FORCONSULT of Sokoine University of Agriculture to conduct an Assessment of Operationalization of Ihemi and Mbarali Cluster Development Frameworks: Lesson Learned. The scope of work covered assessment of planning, process and products through operationalization of the Ihemi and Mbarali Cluster Development Frameworks (CDF) to inform development of the Kilombero Cluster Development Framework through in-depth analysis of the two CDFs process and their implementation. “A CDF is a strategic guiding document that defines the roadmap to operationalize and implement support activities to catalyse the development of the cluster and the growth of agribusiness and strategic value chain partnerships in the respective clusters. The document identifies strategic areas, opportunities and constraints where interventions are required to facilitate agricultural transformation. The CDF is also a partnership document that assists SAGCOT Centre Limited (SCL) to bring together investors and agribusinesses to invest in the cluster and create new partnerships to stimulate growth for commodity value chains and agribusiness”. CDF was “developed to provide focus and guide SCL’s work in facilitating growth within the Cluster particularly with a focus on smallholder development and market linkage”. This initiative aims to improve communication through a network of contacts, information sharing and formal and informal coordination. The intention is to help others perform more efficiently and effectively. Therefore, the main audience for the CDF is the SAGCOT Centre who use the CDF document to design and implement field based operations. The document proposes an approach and priorities, defines an initial strategy, identifies the key actors and indicates a set of concrete activities that the SCL should focus upon. Eventually, SCL uses this for detailed activity planning and budgeting. Thus, CDF is a basis to attract participation of new partners. The CDF is neither a detailed implementation plan nor an investment proposal as those need to be developed by SCL after further field-based consultation. Thus, SCL designed CDF for Ihemi and Mbarali as approaches towards promoting and strengthening inclusive green growth and agricultural transformation in the clusters. The CDF analysed the situation, prioritised strategic value chains of focus, and laid out an approach forward, defining initial key actions for SAGCOT and partners within the clusters while engaging key stakeholders. The CDFs were completed in October 2015 and April 2019 for Ihemi and Mbarali respectively. So far, the CDF have helped SCL to facilitate successful public-private partnerships with specific focus on priority value chains to unlock key bottlenecks and improve the agribusiness policy environment. The success obtained have attracted new investments and projects in Ihemi and Mbarali prompting partner’s wishes to replicate (and adapt where relevant) this approach in the initiation of activities in the Kilombero Cluster (3 rd priority cluster and covers the whole Morogoro region). The overall objective of this assignment is to provide lessons learned from the planning and implementation of the CDFs of Ihemi and Mbarali clusters, and based on the lessons learned to provide recommendations for the development and implementation of future CDFs, in particular the Kilombero CDF. Various approaches were used to collect relevant information for the assignment including desk work reviews of relevant documents and literature, stakeholders’ consultations and key informants’ interviews, field visits and participants’ observations. The key stakeholders visited for interviews and discussions included facilitators (i.e. WWF, SAGCOT), Local Government Authorities (LGAs), Big Investors or value chain pullers (i.e. ASAS, Rafael Group, Mtenda, etc.), NGO (i.e. Kilimo Trust, etc.). The key findings are provided below:
  • Item
    Kilombero cluster development framework (KCDF) In-depth value chain analysis
    (FORCONSULT & BACAS CONSORTIUM- Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, 2023-07) Munishi, P. K. T.; Kashaigili, J. J.; Abdallah, J.; Kadigi, R. M. J.; Mutabazi, K.; Hieronimo, P.; Chunga, C.
    The report presents an in-depth analysis of prioritized value chains with the Kilombero Cluster. The analysis maps the core functions of the value chain the key value chain actors, business service providers and supportive stakeholders for value chains development. An in-depth analysis of the value chains overlays key performance measures including volume of transactions, costs and revenue. The analysis establishes trends and development futures of the value chains in terms of demand shaped by mega-trends such as population, income, urbanization and climate change. The report presents the dynamics of the value chains, investment opportunities, and green growth opportunities and constraints. It further explores policy and planning spaces available and reforms for addressing the critical value constraints.
  • Item
    Economic valuation of auctioned tourist hunting blocks in Tanzania
    (Scientific Research Publishing, 2023) Kadigi, Reuben M. J.; Nkuwi, Imani R.; Ligate, Fredrick A.; Kija, Hamza; Musamba, Emmanuel B.
    Economic valuation of ecosystems is increasingly being recognized as an important exercise to inform sustainable utilization and conservation of natural assets. It helps in planning and establishing fair profit margins that accrue either directly or indirectly from the consumptive and non-consumptive uses of ecosystem goods and services. This paper is based on a study which estimated the economic values of tourist hunting blocks (HBs) in Tanzania using the Analytic Multicriteria Valuation Method (AMUVAM). The study used a sample size of 12 out of 24 vacant hunting blocks which were to be auctioned to potential hunting companies in December 2022. The economic values of HBs were estimated using the time horizon of 10 years (the mean tenure for winning company). The results show that the economic values ranged from USD 6,215,588 to USD 653,470,695 per hunting block and the Existence Value (EV) constituted about 19% of the Total Economic Value (TEV). EV ranged from USD 632,210 to USD 125,147,285. The study underscores the need for decisions to allocate ecosystems, such as HBs, to both direct and indirect uses, to be guided by a though understanding of their values. We further recommend building the capacity of staff charged with the role of managing and allocating uses of these ecosystems to enable them undertake economic valuation of ecosystems using both simple and more robust analytical tools, such as the GIS, relational databases, and worldwide websites based tools, like InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Environmental Services and Tradeoffs), ARIES (Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), and Co$ting Nature.
  • Item
    The effects of trade governance on sugar trade and its landscape of policy practices in Tanzania
    (SAGE, 2022) Kangile, Joseph Rajabu; Mpenda, Zena Theopist; Kadigi, Reuben M. J.; Mgeni, Charles Peter
    Trade governance is important for the efficient implementation of trade policies that support and controls most of the global value chains (GVCs) trade in African countries. Poor trade governance leads to misalignment of trade policies and affects the sustainability of the agricultural commodities supply chains. This study used cross-sectional survey data of 375 randomly selected sugar supply chain actors in Tanzania to evaluate the level of trade governance in Tanzania and ascertain its effects on the sugar trade. Exploratory (factor analysis) and confirmatory (weighted least square regression) models were used for data analysis. The major findings are that governance affects the sugar trade with the magnitude of its effects being felt differently between farmers and traders. It shows further that abrupt trade policy change significantly (p < .05) reduces sugar trade by almost half (47.7%) and lowers the overall level of efforts to invest within the sugar supply chain. Ensuring trade policies are stable and predictable will increase trade by allowing forward contracting and investments. It is also important to create awareness of institutions and organizations managing the sugar supply chain by encouraging transparency in trade policy administration and practices for improving trade governance.
  • Item
    Vulnerability and Poverty: what are the causes and how are they related?
    (ZEF, 2004) Philip, Damas; Rayhan, Israt
    This paper aims to analyze how the terms ‘vulnerability’ and ‘poverty’ can be elucidated in a variety of ways, with different meanings, different implications and their interrelationship. The analysis shows poverty is generally associated with deprivation of health, education, food, knowledge, influence over one’s environment and the many other things that make the difference between truly living and merely surviving. There is another universal aspect of poverty, which makes it particularly painful and difficult to escape is: Vulnerability. The poor are more vulnerable than any other group to health hazards, economic down-turns, natural catastrophes, and even man-made violence. Shocks such as illness, injury and loss of livelihood have dreadful impacts, and are significant causes of poverty. Scholars argue that vulnerability and poverty are comprised of economic, social, cultural, political and environmental factors, thus to identify the full range of factors, this paper encompasses an interdisciplinary analysis with some case studies from developing countries.
  • Item
    Can sub-saharan Africa become food self-sufficient? Analyzing the market demand for sunflower edible oil in Tanzania
    (Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2021) Mgeni, C.P; Mpenda, Z.T
    Deficit in food supply, edible oil in particular is a common occurrence in Tanzania. The deficit in edible oil from the domestic supply is mainly due to use of poor production technology, that include use of unimproved seed coupled with dependent on rain fed agriculture leads to low productivity. However, the high rates of population growth and industrialization increase demand for edible oil both for home consumption and industrial use. Despite Tanzania having comparative advantage in the production of edible oil particularly from sunflower still this opportunity has not fully exploited. Currently, Tanzania, is revitalizing its edible oil sub-sector in order to reduce its dependency on imported edible oil. The sunflower sub-sector in Tanzania is deemed as key to industrialization, thus a potential contributor to economic growth and development, especially for smallholder farmers and small-to medium-size processors. This study aims at discerning the response of sunflower edible oil subsector to fulfill the edible oil demand in Tanzania. The study uses annual time series data from 1995 to 2019. A partial adjustment model is used to determine the relationship between edible oil demand, and its determinants, that are sunflower and palm oil prices, and per capita income. Findings from this study indicate that the demand for edible oil is inelastic for increase in palm oil price but elastic for the increase in domestic sunflower edible oil prices. This implies, as the price of sunflower edible oil increases per capita edible oil decreases. In contrast, increase in imported palm oil price per capita oil demand increases, implying the price for the imported palm oil are extremely low compared to the domestically produced sunflower edible oil. The current speed of adjustment in production of sunflower edible oil is low per year that indicate that it will take many years for Tanzania to be self-sufficient. This situation calls for the government and development agencies to intervene and improve the available technologies thus raise farmers productivity in terms of sunflower seed production as well as efficiency in processing. To improve the productivity of the agro processors, the Tanzania Government will need to reconsider the tax rates imposed on imported technologies and other materials required for processors, making sure they do not actually harm the country’s goal of self-sufficiency in production of edible oils.
  • Item
    Costs and Benefits of Beef Cattle Fattening Schemes in some Selected Areas of North West Tanzania
    (Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science, 2014-12) Malole, J.L.; Kadigi, R.J.M.; Sangeda, A.Z.
    This study highlights the costs and benefits of indigenous beef cattle fattening schemes in Shinyanga Urban and Kishapu Districts in Tanzania. Specifically, in this study the net profit (NP) for fatteners between beef cattle fattening schemes has been determined. The schemes were divided into two main categories, scheme 1 in which the animals were fed on cottonseed hulls (CSHL) based diets and scheme 2 on cottonseed cake (CSC) based diets. The survey was carried out using a sample of 144 respondents. The tools for data collection were structured questionnaire, interview, personal observation, communication, documentary reviews (e.g. from internet, libraries) and key informants. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and quanti-tative statistics and standard procedure of the association of official analytical chemists. Results show that the positive net profit was relatively higher in scheme 2 (Tanzanian shilling (TAS) 119512.87 / USD 76.03 per fed animal per quarter a year) than that in scheme 1 (TAS 92993, 90 / USD 59.17 per fed animal per quarter a year). This implies that the fattening business is more feasible, profitable and efficient for sustainable implementation in scheme 2. Furthermore, the average daily gains (ADG) of 1.5, 1.3 and 1.0 for Tanzania Short Horn Zebu (TSHZ) males, steers and females were higher than the 1.2, 1.0 and 0.9 for TSHZ males, steers and females in scheme 1, respectively. Additionally, the feed conversion ratios (FCRs) of about 5.0, 5.5, 6.3 for TSHZ males, steers and females in scheme 2 were lower than 7.2, 8.6, 8.6 for TSHZ males, steers and females in scheme 1. Therefore, scheme 2 was economically feasible, profitable and therefore is recommended for implementation and monetary support for improved income, livelihoods, poverty reduction and commercialization of the beef industry.
  • Item
    Ratification of the ramsar convention and sustainable Wetlands management: Situation analysis of the Kilombero valley wetlands in Tanzania
    (Academic Journals, 2011) Mombo, Felister; Speelman, Stijn; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido; Hella, Joseph; Pantaleo, Munishi; Moe, Stein
    In recent years, the Kilombero Valley wetlands in Tanzania was designated and added to the Ramsar convention’s list in an attempt to improve its social, economic and environmental values. This study, carried out in selected sites within the Kilombero Valley wetlands, uses a participatory approach to analyze the existing situation and to reflect upon the quest for sustainable management as defined by Ramsar convention. The empirical findings reveal that the Kilombero Valley wetlands are an important source of livelihood for 87% of the dwellers in the area. Moreover, the wetlands also contribute significantly to welfare outside the area as 70% of the country’s hydropower depends on water regulation functions of this wetland and they are the source of a diverse number of streams, adding to their biological and ecological value. The study furthermore revealed that the current institutional arrangement for the site threaten the sustainability of the wetlands, despite its addition to the Ramsar convention’s list. A more detailed study on appropriate incentive mechanisms for the sustainable management of the wetlands, which would help to internalize the negative effects created by the users, is recommended.
  • Item
    Ex-ante economic impact assessment of green manure technology In maize production systems in Tanzania
    (2012) William, J G; Hella, J P; Mwatawala, M W
    In maize-based farming systems, intercropping of maize with green manure have been increasingly been one of the strategies to revive the declining maize production caused by increasing pests’ infestations and low soil fertility. This study analyzed the potential impacts of adoption of green manure technology on yield, cost, and profitability of maize production in the Eastern Zone of Tanzania. To assess the income and costs effects of maize production using green manure, a farm level budget was constructed from primary and secondary sets of data and information using a with-and-without framework of analysis. A partial budget was constructed to determine the incremental benefits from costs of adopting the green manure technology in managing noxious weeds such as Striga. Results showed that the adoption of green manure technology has a high potential to increase marketable yield, reduce costs and increase net profits. The partial budget analysis showed that green manure would give a net incremental benefit of Tsh. 478 654/acre compared to the chemical fertilizers used by farmers. These additional benefits were realized from increased marketable yields and savings from reduced chemical fertilizers and labour costs. Future research should strive to further develop and strategize dissemination channels to reach more of the smallholder population to increase their knowledge base on the alternative values of green manures.
  • Item
    An economic comparison of biological and conventional control Strategies for insect pests in cashew and mango Plantations in Tanzania
    (2013) Juma George, William; Hella, Joseph; Esbjerg, Lars; Mwatawala, Maulid; Rwegasira, Gration
    This study was undertaken to compare alternative methods of pest control for insect pests in order to determine which methods has the highest efficacy against insect pests and the least detrimental side effects, while maintaining production and profits. The analysis was based on the experimental trials for three treatments: weaver ants, chemical insecticides and control. Data on yields, quantities and prices of inputs and output were collected and analyzed using inferential statistics (t-test), partial budgetary technique and marginal analysis involving dominance analysis. The results of partial budget analysis shows that a change from chemical insecticides treatment to weaver ants returned net benefits greater than zero by Tsh. 692 923 and Tsh.1019665 in cashew and mango plantations respectively. Similarly, positive net benefits was obtained when growers change from control to weaver ants treatment by Tsh. 504 989 and Tsh. 891 297 in cashew and mango plantations. The dominance and MRRanalyses shows that if cashew and mango growers change from conventional agricultural practices to weaver ants, they would earn MRR of 1621% which is above minimum acceptable rate of return (MARR) of 100%. The t-test analyses show that weaver ant treatment is superior over conventional agricultural practices. The study concludes that weaver ant treatment was economically feasible and financially undertaking. Further field experimental trials will be repeated in the next two growing seasons to confirm results obtained in
  • Item
    Options to increase adoption of lowland rice - legume Technologies in Morogoro, Tanzania
    (Canadian Center of Science and Education, 2013) Tenge, Albino; Ley, George; Hella, Joseph; Magreth, Kinyau; Opio, Fina; Rwomushana, Ivan
    The main concern in agricultural research is to ensure that research products are adopted by farmers. However, the rate of adoption is low. Most research on adoption rates are post-ante. The values of such research can be added if factors for adoption are ex-ante identified and measures taken to increase adoption. This study was conducted in Morogoro, Tanzania to ex-ante identify socio-economic characteristics that influence adoption of Integrated Lowland Rice Legume Technologies (ILRLT). The ILRLT included integration of rice (SARO variety), legumes (cow pea) water management (irrigation, rainfed and majaruba bunds), tillage (conventional and minimum) and fertilizers (UREA, TSP and MOP). Data were collected through questionnaire interviews to 200 representative farmers and key informants. Descriptive statistics, Multi-Criteria Analysis and a two functions adoption model were used to assess the suitability of ILRLT and analyze the likelihood of farmers to adopt. Results indicated that important criteria for rice variety preference and hence adoption are high prices (7.8%), good taste (6.1%), early maturity (4.8%), disease (3.2%) and drought tolerance (17.4%). ILRLT scored more (26.40%) than farmer’s (17.97%) in fulfilling criteria for rice legume variety preferences. ILRLT have a chance of being adopted to the maximum rate of 89.7%. Adoption is likely to be more with farmers who depend on irrigation than those who depend on rainfed rice farming.
  • Item
    Productivity impact of growth enhancement support scheme on maize farm households in Kano State, NigeriaProductivity impact of growth enhancement support scheme on maize farm households in Kano State, Nigeria
    (African Journal of Agricultural Research, 2019-11) Tiri, G. D; Mlay, G. I; Roselyne, A
    In Nigeria, farmers depend on government support for farm inputs in form of subsidies in order to improve their livelihoods. In this article, the productivity impact of the Growth Enhancement Support Scheme (GESS) input subsidy support program implemented was examined in 2011. The study employs a two-stage probability design to collect household survey data from 390 households in Kano State. As an analytical approach, the study employed a propensity score matching and a Two-Stage Least Square (2SLS) regression estimator that corrects for selectivity and endogeneity problems respectively while Hedges “g” was used to estimate the effect size of GESS .Maize yield and total factor productivity index were used as indicators to estimate the productivity impact of GESS program. The result from two- stage least square estimator showed that GESS subsidy increased the yield of participants by 32.3% and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05) while the result of total factor productivity index, showed that the participants were more productive) and had an average of 14.1% net gain from the cost incurred in production in the 2016 farming season. The size of the estimated treatment effect suggests an improvement in the productivity outcomes of participants. The study found that the results of the study are consistent with similar findings and therefore validate the hypothesis that the GESS subsidy programme improved the productivity of beneficiary households. The scheme obviously has enormous potentials and is also very promising for agricultural input procurement and distribution to resource- poor households in Nigeria. In addition, there is a need for capacity building of the farmers by local extension agents in the form of integrated crop management practices in order to sustain productivity gains. This study concludes that input use alone is not enough to increase maize production, improvement in input use efficiency through integrated crop management practices are also needed.
  • Item
    Ex-Ante analysis of adoption of introduced chicken strains among smallholder farmers in selected areas of Tanzania
    (Springer Nature Switzerland AG, 2019-04) Andrew, Rogers; Makindara, Jeremia; Mbaga, Said H; Alphonce, Roselyne;
    Keeping local chickens is an integral part of Tanzania’s rural economy although it suffers low genetic potential. To address the problem, the Africa Chicken Genetic Gains (ACGG) project introduced and tested improved strains of chicken viz. Sasso and Kuroiler in Tanzania, The paper aimed to predict the rate of adoption of Sasso and Kuroiler chicken strains by using the Adoption and Diffusion Outcome Prediction Tool (ADOPT). Developmental research design involving provision of 25 six weeks old chicks to farmers was adopted. Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey and Focus Group Discussion in three regions of Tanzania. The results indicate that the peak for adoption is likely to be 34, 29 and 38% after 8, 7 and 9 years in Bahi, Ifakara and Wanging’ombe sites respectively. The sensitivity report indicates that the adoption rate may increase to reach 59, 49 and 57% and may decline to about 17, 16 and 21% in Bahi, Ifakara and Wanging’ombe respectively. Extension efforts to facilitate availability of the strains, feeds, treatment and reducing upfront and operating costs are main factors affecting change in the adoption rate to optimize the inherent genetic potential. It is recommended to facilitate extension efforts for adoption rate improvement by upgrading local chicken value chain to enable farmers to access the strains, feeds, medication and market.
  • Item
    Consumer demand for branded and packaged processed foods: the case of rural and urban towns in Tanzania
    (Agricultural Economics Society of Tanzania, 2020-12) Kway, Yudathadei; Alphonce, Roselyne
    This paper elicit the demand for packaged and branded processed food products in selected urban and rural towns of Tanzania, where 630 consumers were randomly selected from two urban and four rural towns based on their size and distance from the primary city Dar es salaam. Garrett’s Ranking Technique and Multinomial Logistic Model were used to assess consumer’s purchasing habits and drivers of choices for branded and packaged processed foods. Results show that there are variations and some similarities in consumer habits in rural and urban towns, and in small and big towns on: - the type of processed foods bought, source of processed food, preference on brand types and drivers of consumer choices. The study shows that majority of the consumers in urban towns are driven by “quantity” while the rural consumers are driven by “storage” when buying packaged maize flour; on the other hand, “large volume” drives urban consumers, and “safety” rural consumers when buying packaged edible oil. In addition, the study showed that consumers from both rural and urban towns prefer branded to unbranded products due to their preference for “good sensory attributes”. Furthermore, results from the Multinomial Logistic Model report education, income, level of refinement and price to have a significant influence on the choice of a brand type for edible oil; while household size, trust, safety and nutrition are important factors influencing the choice of a brand type for maize flour. Implying choice of brand is different for different products, depending on the proliferation of these brands.
  • Item
    Commercialization Pathways: Synegies Between Small And Medium Scale Farmers In Tanzania
    (2021-02) Alphonce, Roselyne; Muyanga, Milu; Minde, Isack
    The changing farm structures in sub-Saharan countries, with the emergence of medium and large scale farmers, has elicited opposing views in the literature. While much of this is largely positive, pointing to positive spillover effects in the larger agro-food industry, some studies point to some evidence of negative spill overs, especially due to land scarcity in the rural areas due to holding of land for speculation purposes, or higher food prices where large producers dedicate land to production for non-food crops. Nevertheless, evidence on the effects of these investments is scarce, with much of the evidence coming from case studies. This study investigates spillover effects of medium-scale farms and large scale farms on small scale farms productivity and commercialization in Tanzania. The study utilizes a sample of about 600 small scale farmers (less than 5 hectares of cultivated land) and about 600 large farmers, 300 medium scale (5 hectares to 10 hectares of cultivated land) and 300 large scale (greater than 10 hectares cultivated land) farmers drawn from eight district in rural Tanzania. A spatial econometric method is used to capture spillover effects from the large farms to small scale farms. Results show positive significant spatial dependence and spillover effects among medium scale and large scale farms on small scale maize productivity and commercialization, but not on rice, another major crop in the region.
  • Item
    Forest Protection
    (E&D Vision Publishing Limited, 2019-05-01) Katani, J. Z.; Mawinda, S.; Mugasha, W. A.
    Forest protection is a practice of preventing and controlling both biotic and abiotic agents, which affect forests and their associated products. There are two agents responsible for tree injury and diseases namely non-pathogenic and pathogenic, they are also known as abiotic and biotic respectively. Non-pathogenic agents include fire, climatic conditions (e.g. wind, drought, rain, and heat), soil conditions and air pollutants. Pathogenic agents cause diseases and they include viruses, bacteria, fungi, mycoplasmas (e.g. protozoa and algae); parasitic plants (e.g. mistletoes), nematodes, arthropods (e.g. insects), birds and mammals. Forest fire, pathology and entomology are discussed in detail in this chapter.