Theses and Dissertations Collection

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    Development of tourism destinations and its impacts on tourists’ satisfaction, residents’ livelihoods towards quality of life in Northern Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2023) Mwongoso, Alpha John
    Tourism in Tanzania is largely concentrated in wildlife protected areas (PAs) and in areas that border and serve as entry points to PAs, known as gateway communities (GCs). As part of PA ecosystem, the GCs have become tourism destinations attracting tourists for over two decades. Tourism in GCs have been considered an alternative and crucial source of livelihoods to pastoral and agro-pastoralists enduring low productivity due to semi-arid and typical Savannah grasslands of northern Tanzania. Despite the existence of tourism in GCs for over two decades, there is unclear understanding on the extent of tourism development and its impacts. Review of studies on nature-based tourism in Tanzanian GCs indicates two areas requiring research initiatives. Firstly, there is inadequate knowledge about the development of tourism destination (i.e. tourism development stages). Secondly, unclear understanding of tourism development-impacts on tourists’ satisfaction on one hand, and residents’ livelihoods (i.e. change in livelihood assets) and quality of life (i.e. life satisfaction on well-being conditions), on another hand. This study was set to address these knowledge gaps by evaluating the development of tourism destination and it’s impacts on tourists’ satisfactions, residents’ livelihoods towards quality of life. Specifically, this study sought to: i) identify development stages of the life-cycle that tourism destinations have passed over the years up to the on-going stage in year 2019, ii) examine to what extent tourism development has created impacts through shaping the tourist perceptions on relative importance and performance of destinations’ attributes influencing tourists satisfaction, iii) evaluate whether tourism development has established impacts to reduce vulnerability through access to livelihood assets between tourism beneficiaries and non-beneficiary households and iv) to evaluate impacts of tourism development on residents quality of life, using community capitals. The study involved 18 villages from three GCs: Burunge, Loliondo and lake Natron. Both primary and secondary data were required to meet the aforementioned research objectives. Primary data were collected using semi-structured key informant interviews (122 individuals), 18 focus group discussions, participants and field observations and survey to 422 randomly selected tourists as well as random selection of 418 tourism beneficiaries and 432 non-beneficiary households. Secondary data comprised the official reports of tourism revenues, spending pattern of tourism revenue, number of tourists visiting these destinations over the years, investment trends and review of relevant literature on tourism development. The main method of analyzing qualitative data was thematic analysis while quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics (i.e. mean, variance and frequencies) and inferential statistics: paired sample t-test, independent samples t-test and Logistic Regression and Difference in Differences impact estimator using Stata15 software while Confirmatory Factor Analysis, and Structural Equation Modeling were analyzed using AMOSv.21 software. The study found that: i) in 36 years (1982-2018), all three destinations have experienced exploration, involvement and are currently at the development stage of the Tourism Area Life Cycle model, ii) tourists’ satisfaction is derived from performance of four factors namely, Amenities, Accessibility, Core attractions and Ancillary services. It was also found that, attributes reflecting on “core attraction factor” (i.e. game viewing and cultural products) are the most important in shaping tourists’ perceptions and also performed well. Although, the overall satisfaction of tourists was high, some attributes reflecting on accessibility, amenities and ancillary services factors were perceived to be underperforming, thus demanding immediate attention of destination managers to optimize tourists experience for the development of tourism destination, iii) within a period of ten years (2008/9-2018/19) tourism has significantly increased livelihood capital assets index by 8%, thus, enabled the tourism-beneficiaries to reduce vulnerability to drought, livestock diseases, rise in food prices and illness, by effective shock-coping activities, iv) residents’ actual and perceived quality of life is influenced by resident’s satisfaction with both materials and non-materials tourism benefits which in turn led to residents support for further tourism development. These results led to the general conclusion that development of tourism destinations in GCs consistently abides to the life cycle stages, while on one hand, the natural and cultural attractions underline tourists’ satisfaction. On the other hand, tourism development-impacts on increased livelihood assets among residents led to reduction in vulnerability to multiple shocks and in turn, affects positively the residents’ quality of life. For further development of tourism destination with greater capacity of improving residents’ quality of life while optimizing tourist satisfaction, the following are recommended: i) initiatives should be done to improve road conditions, possibly using Public Private Partnership (PPP) investment arrangements; build capacity (e.g. training and grant/loan) to local residents to co-own and manage tourism assets like camps and lodges, ii) destination managers should allocate more resources to recruit professional chef, improve interior décor, address unhygienic environment (i.e., ensure cleanliness of washrooms) and moderate the perceived unreasonable high prices for food and accommodation. These actions are expected to optimize tourists’ experience and increase duration of tourist staying beyond three days, iii) development stakeholders should disseminate knowledge to local residents on efficient farming and grazing. This entails technical know-how in micro catchment rain-water harvesting and the production of higher yield-drought resistant crops while encouraging pastoralists adaptation of their livestock breeding and grazing practices confined to fixed boundaries within land zoned for general-use while maintaining the hunting-use zone and wildlife corridor-use zones.
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    Two-decade variations in hydrology of two river basins in the Usambaras of north-eastern Tanzania
    (Duke University, 1994) Munishi, Pantalco K. T.
    Quantifying local, regional, and global climatic and hydrologic changes is relatively difficult due to high temporal and spatial variability, and to the length of time it takes for these changes to be monitored and detected. The study of precipitation and river flow patterns of two watersheds, Sigi and Soni Rivers, that drain the east and west Usambaras in northeastern Tanzania over a two decades period 1965 to 1989, show that there were varying patterns of precipitation and river flow on the Usambaras over the period. Though a non-significant trend, precipitation increased by 2.7% in the east Usambaras while it decreased by 7.7% in the west Usambaras during the period 1965-1990. The mean annual discharge increased by 2.6% in the east and 44% in the west Usambaras. During approximately two decades, discharge per unit of precipitation did not change significantly in the east Usambaras whereas it appeared to increase at a rate of 0.02 m3 s“lyr"l in the west Usambaras (P = 0.06). This is about 0.4 m3 s-1 yr-1 (1.2 cm ha-1 yr-1) more water flowing into the river today compared to 1965. There has been an increase in the proportion of precipitation reaching the rivers especially in the west Usambaras, which seems to have started about in the mid-1960’s. Such watershed response to rainfall may be attributed to climatic and land use factors. In the Usambaras, changes in hydrologic response coincide with high rates of deforestation and changes in land use patterns. It is recommended that the remaining catchment areas on the Usambaras, and vegetation filter strips along river/stream banks should be protected. Appropriate reforestation work in degraded lands including agroforestry in farmlands should form the framework of conservation measures.
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    Host community perceptions of volunteer tourists in the Northern tourist circuit, Tanzania
    (Victoria University of Wellington, 2013) Ezra, Peter Marwa
    The existing and growing body of volunteer tourism literature has broadly addressed a myriad of topics but with a major focus on volunteer tourists. Limited knowledge is available on how these volunteer tourists are perceived by the host communities. The current literature defines volunteer tourists based on the perspective from where the majority of volunteer sending organizations and volunteer tourists come from - the primarily Western, developed country perspective. This study argues that this Western-dominated and developed country conceptualization of volunteer tourism and volunteer tourists must be addressed. In response the study examines the perceptions and conceptualisations of ‘volunteer tourists’ from the perspective of a host community in a developing country, Tanzania. To capture a multitude of host community perspectives on volunteer tourists, a qualitative case study approach was adopted which focused on a village near Arusha on the Northern Tourist Circuit (NTC) of Tanzania. Forty five semi-structured interviews were conducted with different community stakeholders, including private sector and public sector employees, people working for the not-for-profit sector and local people without affiliation to any of these three sectors. Importantly, these interviews were conducted by a Tanzanian researcher in Swahili and/or English. This research reveals that various stakeholders within the host community have different meanings and understandings of volunteer tourists based on their expectations and experiences. For example, the local people and those working for the not-for-profit sector perceived volunteer tourists as donors and sponsors, while those working in the public sector perceive volunteer tourists as international workers and/or NGO employees; and the private sector respondents perceived volunteer tourists as niche tourists. The study also reveals that the host community attributes that influence their perceptions arc based on economic, socio-cultural, environmental and legal and/or regulatory framework factors; this includes, for example, racial ethnicity and poverty. Moreover, this research found that the host community’s perceptions of volunteer tourists are shaped by the issues of trust and mistrust that transpire in the course of their interaction. The study highlights the need to consider the financial element of volunteer tourism as a positive aspect and stresses the involvement of host community in the operation and management of volunteer tourist organizations.
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    Domestic tourism status in Tanzania: a case study of Tanzania national parks
    (University of Greenwich, 2005) Kishe, Edward Steven
    Although tourism is a major economic undertaking in the world, however, domestic tourism has not received adequate attention especially in many developing countries. This study focused on domestic tourism in Tanzania looking at issues relating to the promotion of domestic tourism. The study rationale is based on the fact that, despite Tanzania being recognized for its wildlife­ rich national parks for tourism, the majority of tourists are foreigners. Domestic tourism has received little attention. The study therefore, was designed to bridge this gap in knowledge by assessing the current status of domestic tourism. The overall aim of this study is to document means of improving domestic tourism in Tanzania as an alternative way of supporting the country’s National Parks as well as raising the level of conservation awareness of Tanzanians. The study used social surveys (questionnaires and interviews) as the main method of gathering information. Three National Parks that are close to each other were chosen for sampling as well as urban dwellers of two major urban centers close to these Parks. Five target groups living close to the Parks were surveyed, which included, primary school teachers, local community leaders, domestic tourists, urban dwellers and Parks officials. A total of 336 questionnaires were administered to these groups between June-August 2005. Field visits and interviews were conducted during the same period. The main findings of the study indicated that tourism policies needed harmonization to be in line with the prevailing situation. The results further showed that there is slow growth of domestic tourism in Tanzania. On the other hand there is reluctance by Tanzanians to pay Park entry fees. At the National and Park level, the study showed that the sources of public information were not fully utilized resulting in a weakness in domestic tourism promotion. Local communities leaders adjacent to the Parks studied valued their existence but were not ready to contribute to conservation. For the future the prevailing image for the-primary school teachers showed general support on the establishment of conservation education in schools and wildlife clubs. Economic hardship stood high as a determinant factor in planning Parks visits and the major areas of concerns were transport, food and accommodation. Park entry fees appeared to be a problem to a segment in the sampled target groups. As for domestic tourists’ statistics, there is little information available so far, sometimes creating confusion even in determining who really is a domestic tourist. This is due to the way statistics are collected and interpreted. That aside, it appears that urban dwellers were more knowledgeable about the Parks and ready to pay the current Park fees rates although some were ready to pay more. Based on the main findings for this study, the report concludes that domestic tourism is poorly promoted due to weak policies, strategies and plans. It is further ascertained that the current slow growth in domestic tourism needs to be reversed so that its contribution to Parks’ income increases. The study concludes with the justifications to promote domestic tourism, encourage conservation education in schools and find ways to reduce costs for Tanzanians of visiting National Parks. Lastly, it is recommended to harmonize the national tourism policies to be in line with the public, private sectors and the communities. At the same time, it is necessary to initiate domestic tourism research, regional tourism, to undertake aggressive marketing and to provide conservation education curricula in schools for the youth.
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    Sustainable wildlife tourism in the context of climate change: the case study of Ngorongoro conservation area, Tanzania
    (Victoria University Melbourne, Australia, 2014-04) Mkiramweni, Nickson Peter
    Attaining sustainability of wildlife tourism has been a challenge in a world of uncertainty. This is even more so when the world’s climate is rapidly changing. Scientific evidence suggests that climate change will continue and escalate into the future. All sectors of the economy, including tourism, will be impacted by climate change. Both the human and environmental systems of tourism will suffer the consequences of climate change. Wildlife tourism is one of the tourism subsectors, representing a strong interconnectedness between human and environmental systems, recognised as being vulnerable to climate change. Thus, reducing vulnerability is inevitable if wildlife tourism is to grow sustainably. Adaptation is one of the two mechanisms for dealing with the consequences of climate change. Wildlife tourism needs to adapt to climate change for it to grow sustainably. Despite this recognition, very little research has been undertaken on how wildlife tourism worldwide can adapt to climate change. As a result, the contribution of research on how wildlife tourism can be sustained has remained elusive. A common feature is the lack of an effective framework for addressing climate change adaptation in wildlife tourism. A review of existing climate change adaptation frameworks found that none of them focused on wildlife tourism destinations. This thesis proposes a conceptual Wildlife Tourism Climate Change Adaptation Framework (WTCCAF) to assist wildlife tourism to adapt to climate change. Three steps were adopted to develop such a framework. The first step involved reviewing existing climate change adaptation frameworks for tourism more generally. This review was done in order to understand the context and scope from which these frameworks can be undertaken. Because attaining sustainable wildlife tourism has been a major and urgent issue for wildlife tourism practitioners; the review of literature on climate change adaptation was preceded by the review of sustainable wildlife tourism development frameworks. This was deemed important to develop a theoretical sustainability base against which the review of climate change adaptation frameworks could be evaluated. The outcome of this review was the development of a theoretical climate change adaptation framework grounded in sustainable wildlife tourism development theories. The second step involved testing the newly developed framework in the field. The formulated framework adopted the following terminologies: shocks and stressors and exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity frequently used in climate change studies. In this thesis these terminologies are used as key themes for assessing the vulnerability of wildlife tourism. Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA) was selected as a case study for testing the developed framework. The purpose of this test was to understand the factors that heighten the vulnerability of NCA to climate change. This in turn helped to adjust the developed theoretical framework to reflect what was happening on the ground in the field. Primary data were collected from key practitioners of NCA wildlife tourism system including conservationists, tourism businesses and local community. The methods of data collection include in-depth interviews and focus group discussions supplemented with informal conversations and observations. Overall, 86 practitioners participated in this research. The third step involved the development of a conceptual climate change adaptation framework (i.e. WTCCAF) based on key findings of this study. The intention of this framework is to provide wildlife tourism practitioners with a tool to guide them in developing climate change adaption interventions. Thus this framework makes a contribution to the fields of wildlife tourism and conservation, particularly when climate change is acknowledged as a major threat to the sustainability of wildlife tourism. This thesis however recommends that because not every climate related issue was captured in this study, further research is deemed necessary.
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    Assessment of forest conditions, threats and management effectiveness in the catchment of Malagarasi-Muyovozi Wetlands, Urambo District, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2007) Heriberth, Joseph Adam Haulle
    This study assessed the forest conditions, threats and management effectiveness of selected catchment forests of Malagarasi-Muyovozi wetlands in Urambo District, Tanzania, particularly Mpanda Line Forest Reserve. The level of disturbance was obtained through disturbance assessment methodology while threats through threat reduction assessment tool. The World Commission on Protected Areas tracking tool assessed management effectiveness and socio-economic factors was obtained through structured questionnaires. The results showed that forest disturbance for both trees and poles in the three strata were significantly different (p<0.05). The forest disturbance as well as the use intensities were highest in the open woodlands followed by closed woodlands and wooded grasslands, implying high human impacts in the open woodlands. The threat reduction assessment index was 16%, indicating that the reserve is highly threatened. Major threats were wildfires, illegal logging, overgrazing, and encroachment. The management effectiveness assessment score was 28% implying that the reserve is poorly managed and therefore it stands a chance of loosing its status as biodiversity conservation and wetland catchment area if the situation is not attended adequately. Lack of clear reserve boundaries, management plan, secured funding, adequate law enforcement, appropriate and well-trained staff and local community involvement were the major shortfalls. Socio­ economic factors that significantly influence human disturbance in the reserve include age, ethnicity, and demand for forest products and services. A number of conservation initiatives were revealed, which may contribute in reducing the threats facing the reserve and increasing the management effectiveness. Contribution of Sustainable and Integrated Management of the Malagarasi-Muyovozi Ramsar Site Project, Ugalla Community Conservation Project, Robin Hurt and Safaris Company and Friends of Urambo and Mwanihala was acknowledged. It is recommended that a management plan, land use plans, and collaboration between local communities and the government are pertinent to the conservation of the catchment and maintenance of local livelihood benefits.
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    Rural women accessibility to water resources and their resilience to the resources variability: case study of Muheza District, Tanga Region
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2018) Jacob, P.
    The geographic location, landscape nature and hydrology make Muheza District the base catchment for Tanga, Korogwe, Pangani and Handeni Districts. Considering this, the study on how rural women in the face of climate change and anthropogenic activities on one hand, and national water policies and the Millennium Goals on the other, access water resources and manage its variability was executed. The district was represented by five purposefully selected villages namely, Kwelumbizi, Kizerui, Misalai, Kazita and Mgambo during the study conducted from December 2017 to April 2018. The study used Escherichia coli and total coliform as biological indicators of water quality whereas pH, and total dissolved solids and temperature were used as chemical and physical indicators of water quality, respectively. Biological data were collected by growing both Escherichia coli and total coliform from 216 water samples in the Incubator dgtl w/auto for twelve hours under 3MTMPetrifilmTM coliform count plates subjected to 440C and 370C, respectively. Colonies grown were counted by VHX Digital Microscope while pH was measured using digital ODM pH meter, and total dissolved solids measured using Mettler Toledo's TDS meter. The social aspects were collected using a combination of three techniques: questionnaire surveys, interview with key informants and focus group discussions. The findings indicated that communities face a number of constraints related to water collection especially during dry seasons, including low quality water as exhibited by unacceptable levels of coliform bacteria and pH level for acidic water. This study underscores the fact that sustainable utilization of water resources in Muheza Rural District is necessary as its hydrology is vital to the neighboring districts in Tanga Region and Tanga Municipality. Conducting another study to assess whether communities may have been affected by the coliform bacteria and whether the acidic water could have or may affect community healthy in the future is recommended.
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    Reproducing forestry education, scientific authority, and management practices in Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2018) Sungusia, E. R.
    Despite changing views about what forests are and what values they hold to society, the narrow vision of scientific forestry emphasizing demarcation, mensuration, calculation, and modelling remains hegemonic across most of the World, including in Tanzania. The reproduction of forestry across time and space is the topic of this thesis. The thesis considers the reproduction by conceptualizing forestry practices as a product of dispositions (habitus) and encountered situations within the forest management social field. The thesis links the production, circulation, and application of scientific forestry knowledge. Employing a qualitative methodology based on interviews, observations, and document analysis, the thesis thus examines the reproduction of forestry in educative practices at the Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA), activities of forestry academics, and practices of government foresters. The pedagogy and curriculum of forestry education creates scientific forestry habitus for the forest management field. Forestry academics, who doubles as scientists and experts and occasionally as bureaucrats, conduct research and engage in consultancies in ways that preserve and perpetuate, rather than disrupt, the primacy of scientific forestry knowledge, consciously or unconsciously. Professional foresters’ habitus, acquired through forestry training, imply that technical practices are taken for granted. This is not to deny that foresters undertake strategic actions to maximize their personal benefits. But even so, the scientific forestry habitus predisposes foresters to reproduce technical forestry practices. Violence (injustices and failures) in forest management is thus a by-product of what appears to foresters as appropriate forest management approaches and practices. Violence is symbolic and often misrecognized because foresters have acquired a frame of seeing and thinking about landscapes with trees that naturalizes scientific forestry practices. This misrecognition of violence and failures reproduces existing practices by foreclosing the possibilities of seeing beyond and disrupting them. A radical rethinking of forest policy, and thus of the established scientific and social order, therefore presupposes a rethinking of the forestry curriculum and pedagogy.
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    Evaluating Local Food-Tourism Linkages as a Strategy for Promoting Sustainable Tourism and Economic Development: A Case for Tanzania
    (Clemson University Tigerprints, 2015-05) Mgonja, J. T.
    Tanzania is one of sub-Saharan Africa’s most popular and rapidly growing tourism destinations. Despite high economic growth stirred by fast tourism development, the level of poverty and unemployment is still very high. The rapid growth in tourism which translates into economic growth does not appear to have considerably improved local people’s income and reduced poverty in the country. Involvement of local people in the ownership of tourism enterprises is viewed as an important tool for promoting sustainable tourism, improving local peoples’ income and reducing financial leakage which is caused by importation of goods such as food and drinks from other countries. The main purpose of this study is therefore, to evaluate local food –tourism linkages as a strategy for promoting sustainable tourism, economic development and poverty alleviation in Tanzania. More specifically, the study investigated major challenges encountered by local food suppliers in accessing tourism markets (hotels). Correspondingly, the study investigated major challenges that hotel managers face in dealing with local food suppliers. The study also assessed perceptions of international tourists regarding local foods in Tanzania. The research was conducted by survey from June to August, 2014. The study population consisted of international tourists departing from Kilimanjaro International Airport (n = 520, response rate = 88%), hotel managers (n = 226, response rate = 73.6%) and local food suppliers (n = 240, response rate = 79.5%). Data for hotel managers and local food suppliers were collected from Arusha and Dar es Salaam cities. Research data were analysed by using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with EQS 6.2 for Windows. The KIA survey results showed that cognitive/perceptual (knowledge and beliefs) and affective (feelings) evaluations are two interdependent psychological constructs, which together play a key role in understanding individuals’ overall perception about local foods. The cognitive/perceptual evaluations formed by individuals as a result of accumulated knowledge and beliefs about local foods influence individuals’ overall perception about local foods. Likewise, the survey shows that the affective evaluation (feelings) that individuals have about local foods influence individuals’ overall perception about local foods. Understanding cognitive/perceptual as well as affective evaluations of a consumer is therefore, extremely important in tourism because it assists in understanding how tourists perceive local foods or a destination as a whole. The results also show that many hotels where tourists stayed in did not provide many varieties of local foods or enough information about local foods. The results from hotel managers’ as well as local food suppliers’ surveys show that lack of operating capital, seasonality of local foods, lack of food handling skills, unstable prices of local foods, low quality and safety of local foods, lack of clear food specifications from hotels and poor road infrastructure constitutes some of the major challenges facing local food-tourism linkages in the country. The results of this study assist in clarifying the overall international tourists’ perception regarding local foods in Tanzania as well as major constraints facing local food-tourism linkages. The findings of this study may therefore, help practitioners in improving the image of the destination as well as food-tourism linkages in the country.
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    Understanding Technological and Managerial Factors contributing on the Performance of Traceability Systems in the Fish Supply Chain, the case study of Tanzania
    This thesis starts with two examples of food incidents in Tanzania giving the reader the first insight into how track and tracing systems can be useful both in terms of protecting consumer’s health and in terms of economical repercussions when it is well designed and executed. To ensure the ongoing safety of food along the supply chain, traceability must be built into every step of the process. Traceability systems help companies minimize the production and distribution of unsafe or poor quality products, which in turn minimizes the potential for negative publicity, liability and recalls. The better and more precise the tracing system, the faster you can identify and resolve food safety or quality problems. This is best accomplished through a well designed and executed T&T system. A T&T System that takes into account of the contextual factors during design and execution will ultimately promote the availability of accurate and real-time information to all nodes of the supply chain, from raw materials and component suppliers, to manufacturers, distributors, transportation providers and consumers. The first chapter of this project gives general introduction to the problem and then description of the reasons compelled me to carry out this project (motivation for the study). Chapter two deals with literature review. In this chapter, various models dealing with traceability systems directly or indirectly are fully explored and evaluated on the basis of their validity, reliability and relevance to the study. Chapter three deals with development of the research model, the research model is developed as a result of various models explored in chapter two including IMAQE-Food model developed by Van der Spiegel and co-authors (2003), and traceability system parameters model developed by Kousta (2006). This chapter also deals with development of different indicators which have been used to operationalise the research model. Chapter four is about methodology of the study. Chapter five is discussing the results of the study obtained after the analysis. The result of this analysis is identification of bottlenecks. Chapter six is about assessment of different solutions of the identified bottlenecks. Chapter seven is about general evaluation of the project including conclusions and recommendations. The research conducted in this thesis may be useful to many organisations/companies. It may assist them to understand various factors which are influencing the design and execution of the traceability system and thereby improve the performance of their traceability systems.
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    Effects of institutional changes on forest condition: A case of Chenene forest reserve in Bahi district, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2015) Nkonoki, J. B.
    This study assessed the effects of institutional changes on forest condition, stakeholders’ interests, the performance of local institutions and factors influencing the performance of local governance structures, using a case study of Chenene Forest Reserve (CFR) in Bahi, Tanzania. Data were collected through forest inventory using 120 systematically selected sample plots. Satellite images were collected and analysed using Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System techniques. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), focus group discussions (FGD), key informants and questionnaire survey were used to collect data on socio-economic factors. Quantitative data on forest condition and forest governance were subjected to descriptive and inferential statistical analysis, while qualitative data were analysed using content analysis. Logistic regression model was developed to analyze factors influencing performance of local governance structures. Nine areas of conflicting interests that occurred among stakeholders were identified which were routed in institutional and socio-economic perspectives. The study showed that the performance of Village Environmental Committees (VECs) in governing forest resources had improved. The inventory carried out in 2011 revealed that, an average number of stems per hectare (N), basal area per hectare G (m2ha-1) and volume V (m3ha-1) were 199, 1.71 and 6.46 respectively. The low parameters in wood-stock were due to massive exploitation and other human disturbances in the past. The tree diversity of 4.0 was recorded which was in line with other past studies on dry miombo woodlands. Results on forest cover changes revealed that, the forest condition had improved by 2 576 ha at the rate of 0.50% after decentralization of CFR. Socio-economic factor that significantly influenced most of the performance of local governance was found to be education level. The study concludes that, institutional change reforms on forest management are one of the best options in improving forest condition and forest governance. The study recommends that, monitoring studies are needed in order to have comprehensive understanding on implications of institutional changes on forest resource condition and forest governance.