Theses and Dissertations Collection

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    Urinalysis in companion animals : a urinary sediment, microbiology and protein study
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 1996) Batamuzi, Emmanuel K.
    This thesis is comprised of two parts, first is a general part which is an overview of the diagnostic methods for the diseases of the urinary system. The purpose of the general part is to bring together contemporary information about a whole range of diagnostic methods for diseases of the urinary system in companion animals.This section has been prepared for students, veterinary technicians and practitioners of veterinary medicine, who have not specialized in urology and nephrology, but whose work requires exposure with respect to available diagnostic techniques. The six papers listed below forms the second part. I: Batamuzi, E. K. and F. Kristensen : Diagnostic importance of urothelial cells of the dog and cat. Journal of Small Animal Practice 1995, 36: 17-21. II: Batamuzi, E. K., F. Kristensen, A. Basse and S. Dahl: Idiopathic renal hematuria in a dog. Veterinary Record 1994, 135: 603. in: Batamuzi, E. K. and F. Kristensen: Urinary tract infection: the role of canine transmissible venereal tumour. Journal of Small Animal Practice 1996 (In Press). IV: Batamuzi, E. K., F. Kristensen and A. L. Jensen : Analysis of serum proteins in geriatric dogs using agarose electrophoresis. J. Vet. Med. Series A. 1996 (In preparation). V: Batamuzi, E. K., F. Kristensen and A. L. Jensen : Subclinical glomerulopathy in selected cases of recurrent pyoderma in dogs. Veterinary Dermatology 1996 (In Press). VI: Batamuzi, E. K., F. Kristensen and A. L. Jensen : Composition of protein in urine from dogs with pyoderma. Veterinary Record 1996 (Submitted).
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    Some pharmacological and toxicological activities of some plants used in traditional Medicine in Mwanza, Tanzania
    (2009) Mshamu, S.
    Three medicinal plants, Albizia anthelmintica, Salvadora persica and Vernonia amygdalina used in traditional medicine in Magu district, Mwanza were investigated for antimicrobial and anthelmintic activity. Informal interviews carried out in two villages of Nassa ginnery and Mwanangi, revealed several plants used in traditional medicine to treat humans and livestock diseases. These plants were alleged to be effective in treating abdominal pains, worm infestations including schistosomiasis, malaria and eye conditions. Toxicity studies and phytochemical screening of the study plants were also carried out. Antimicrobial activity study showed highest zone of inhibition with B.subtilis (23 mm) MIC = 7.8125 mg/ml) for the aqueous extract of Vernonia amygdalina. The ethanolic extract of the same plant had highest zone of inhibition of 26 mm, MIC = 62.50 mg/ml with B.anthracis. The other two plants tested showed some activity against some of the tested bacteria with decreased zone of inhibition and higher MIC values. In the in vitro anthelmintic activity studies, aqueous extract of Albizia anthelmintica had highest activity against the egg hatchability and larval survival. The highest percentage hatchability inhibition was 94.67%. The antischistosmal activity of S. persica in naturally infected calves showed 77.47% faecal egg count reduction. The brine shrimp lethality assay gave LC 50 values greater than 20 μgml -1 , which is the cut-off point for a substance to be regarded as acutely toxic to biological systems. The phytochemical screening of the study plants, revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides and saponins. From the findings of this study it can be concluded that, the study plants contains some bioactive principles which may be responsible for their alleged activities. The study confirms some of the alleged effects of the studied plant preparations. Traditional medicine preparations from the studied plants have been proved efficacious and safe; this justifies their continued use without adverse effects.
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    Antimicrobial activity of indigenous plants used by pastoral communities for milk preservation in Kilosa District, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2017) Kawanga, C. N.
    Milk is an important part of the diet among pastoral communities in Kilosa district, Tanzania. Its production and consumption derives much food security and economic benefits to the rural people in the district. However, Milk has a complex biochemical composition and its high-water activity and nutritional value serves as an excellent medium for growth and multiplication of many kinds of microorganisms. This shortens the shelf-life of milk. In the framework of research to improve the shelf-life and safety of milk, this study was conducted to explore the indigenous knowledge on milk preservation and antimicrobial activity of the commonly used plants in milk preservation. A survey was conducted on the use of herbs in milk in Parakuyo and Mbwade villages in the district, after which leaves, stems and roots of two plant species of Dalbergia melanoxylon and Combretum imberbe were collected for laboratory analysis. Biological activity using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) serial dilution assay against six milk spoilage bacteria and titratable acidity were determined. The common methods for preservation of milk were boiling, fumigation of milk containers using dried stems and roots of selected plant species and fermentation. Ethanol extracts of the plant parts showed antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeriginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and Proteus spp. Stem extract of D. melanoxylon showed highest activity with an MIC of 3.125 mg/ml. The difference in biological activity among the extracts was not statistically significant. Furthermore, there was no statistical difference in lactic acid production between milk samples treated with extracts and non-treated fresh milk samples. The results of this study give credence to the traditional use of Dalbergia melanoxylon and Combretum imberbe and expand our knowledge on the biological activity of their extracts as potential natural preservatives.
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    Comparative physiological, biochemical and behavioral responses to heat stress and low dietary energy in selected Tanzanian local chicken ecotypes
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2018) Khondowe, P.
    As an important source of income and protein, local chickens are widely reared by a majority of rural and peri-urban households in many developing countries including Tanzania.However, these birds are seasonally exposed to challenging environments that includehigh temperatures and decreased scavengeable food materials.It was hypothesized that local chickens bred from different regions of Tanzania might have selected ecotypes with stronger tolerance to high temperatures andsuboptimal nutrition.Two groups of studies were conducted to compare effects of heat stressand low dietary energy in three Tanzanian chicken ecotypes: Kuchi (KU), Ching‟wekwe (CH) and Morogoro medium (MM). In the first study conducted at prevailing cyclic ambient temperatures, 4 weeks old hens wereeither fed a control diet containing 2864 Kcal/kgMEor diets containing 40 or 55% less energy than the control over a period of 7 weeks. Results showed ecotypespecific responses through differences in growth performance, feed conversion ratios (FCRs),behavioural responses, blood indices,and liver hsp70 and iNOS gene expressions.MM showed better performance at 55% restriction level whereas Kuchi exhibited better performance at 40% restriction and control energy levels. In the second study, the first batch of chickens was exposed to a constant temperature of 32±1°C for 7 days and thereafter raised and maintained at 37±1°C (8hrs per day) for 10 days, whereas the second batch was subjected to similar conditions but fed 55% less dietary energy than the control. Results showed ecotype-based differences in responses to both heat stress and a combination of heat stress with low dietary energy. MM had greater tolerance to heat stress and its combination with low dietary energy than KU and CH but similar to CH when only heat stress was applied, with respect to liver hsp70 gene expression and serum corticosterone.Collectively, the results show that growth performance and responses to heat stress and low dietary energy in the three local chicken ecotypes are different andhave provided starting points for future research to devise programs that include physiological, biochemical and behavioral traits that would enhance selection for heat and low dietary energy tolerance among the local chicken stocks.
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    Impact of climate variability and change on rain-fed farming system in selected semi-arid areas of Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2015) Samwel, J. K.
    Climate variability and change pose serious challenges to smallholder farmers and agro-pastoralists. Nonetheless, their trends and impacts on rain-fed farming system (RFFS) in semi-arid areas of Tanzania have not sufficiently been explored. This study was conducted in Iramba and Meatu districts to contribute to this knowledge gap. The study specifically (i) assessed meteorological data trends of rainfall and temperature between 1994 and 2011; (ii) determined farmers’ perception of climate variability and change in relation to meteorological data trends; (iii) determined changes in RFFS in response to climate variability and change; and (iv) examined changes in gender relations in response to climate variability and change. Although available meteorological data were less than 30 years suggesting climate variability, farmers’ perceptions covered up to 30 years and so addressed the question of climate change. A qualitative phase informed a household survey that covered a random sample of 388 households’ respondents (39% women). Qualitative data were transcribed into text and analyzed based on content and meaning of the text. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze quantitative data. The results showed that there was no significant increase (P > 0.05) in inter-annual rainfall variability. However, seasonal rainfall variability showed a clear decreasing trend in April and December, in Iramba; and in January and April, in Meatu. Decreasing rainfall trend in April occurred simultaneously with increasing temperature trend. In addition, farmers’ perception and meteorological data trends compared well on change and on increased rainfall unpredictability as well as on increased warming and dry years. Nonetheless, due to missing data in some periods, meteorological data trends did not show increased frequency of drought since the 2000s as opposed to farmers’ perception. As hypothesized (P > 0.05), men and women’s perceptions were almost the same. Similarly, perceptions of the poor, not so poor and the rich were almost the same (P > 0.05). Unlike the hypothesis, the binary logistic regression model showed that climate variability and change had significant impact on changing crop varieties and livestock grazing places relative to non-climatic factors. Warming (ß = -10.61, Wald = 36.26, P ≤ 0.001) showed the highest impact on changing crop varieties. In addition, drought (ß = 2.16, Wald = 6.82, P ≤ 0.009) showed the highest impact on changing livestock grazing places. Based on division of labour, control over resources and biased norms, climate variability and change increased and perpetuated existing asymmetrical gender relations. The study concludes that although inter-annual rainfall had not changed significantly, temperature, drought and seasonal rainfall variability had intensified relative to the situation in the 1970s. This had substantial impacts on cropping and livestock systems and on gender relations. Therefore, strategies used by the farmers and interventions promoted by the government and Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) to address the impacts should comprehensively consider seasonal variability with gender perspectives.
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    Biological activity of extracts from commiphora swynnertonii against microbes of veterinary importance in chickens
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2013) Bakari, Gaymary G.
    Studies were carried out to establish ethno-botanical information and biological activities of crude extracts from Commiphora swynnertonii against selected microbes of veterinary importance in chickens. Initially, a questionnaire survey was conducted to gather information on practices and knowledge on ethno-botanical uses of C. swynnertonii in the study area. Then extracts from different morphological parts of the study plant were tested against selected bacteria and fungi in vitro using agar well diffusion assay. Resin and root bark extracts showed significant activities (P < 0.001) against S. pyogenes, E. coli and B. subtilis compared to other extracts. The fungi, C. albicans and A. niger, were moderately inhibited. Antiviral activity of the resin and root bark extract was tested in ovo using embryonated chicken eggs inoculated with Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Both extracts significantly (P < 0.001) and effectively reduced virus titres. An animal trial was carried out using the resin and chickens experimentally infected with NDV. Results revealed significant reduction (P < 0.05) in clinical signs and mortality rates following administration of the resin before and after the infection. Prophylactic administration of the extract was found to be more effective than the therapeutic approach. HI titres decreased significantly (P < 0.001) in resin and root bark treated groups and in all chickens treated with resin irrespective of dose given and on whether the extract was administered before or after infection suggesting that the plant materials were capable of destroying the NDV before stimulating the developing chick‘s immunity. Another animal trial investigated the effect of the resin against experimental coccidiosis in chickens. Results showed that oral administration of the resin significantly (P < 0.001) reduced mortality rate. Safety margin of the resin was also investigated by determining its effects on selected physiological and biochemical parameters in chickens. The results revealed a good margin of safety provided that the dosage ranges between 200 to 800 mg resin/kg body weights. A phytochemical study was also carried to determine major bioactive compounds in the resin and root bark extracts. With these studies, it is concluded that extracts from C. swynnertonii especially resin, has significant antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and anticoccidial effect against the selected microbes. Further research is required to test and validate the extract against other pathogens of medical and veterinary importance.
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    Studies on the effects of Hippopotamus amphibious vectored subsidies on the ecology of aquatic ecosystem
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2015) Mpemba, James
    A study was conducted along the Great Ruaha River (GRR) at Ruaha National Park (RNP) for a period of two months (November to December 2013) with the main aim of assessing the effects of Hippopotamus amphibious vectored subsidies on the chemistry of river ecosystems and the ecology of aquatic resident within these systems. The study was done by measuring river water nutrients, physical water chemistry parameters, and stable isotope analysis of aquatic consumers. Study sites were identified in two basic treatment types: river pools containing hippos and those showing no evidence of hippo occupancy. Response parameters that were measured included total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), total dissolved phosphorus (TDP), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrate (NO3), and ammonia (NH3). Total dissolved nitrogen, total dissolved phosphorus, and nitrate were significantly elevated in hippo pools relative to non hippo pools (P<0.01). Ammonia, and dissolved organic carbon were not statistically significant between hippo and non hippo pools but their absolute levels were slightly higher in hippo pools. Physical parameters of the GRR were also assessed including measures of dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, conductivity, temperature, and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Dissolved oxygen, pH, and conductivity were significantly higher in the hippo pools compared to non hippo pools (P<0.001). Temperature and CDOM did not vary with hippo density (P>0.05). Stable isotopes of carbon (13C) and nitrogen (15N) were also assessed during the study to examine whether this technique could help us identify use of hippo delivered nutrients by river consumers such as fish. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes were not significantly different for the fish sampled in hippo and non hippo pools. This lack of difference may derive from saturation of C4 plant derived 13C in the GRR ecosystem. This study provides for the first time more insight into the influence of hippo vectored organic material in aquatic ecosystem dynamics in the GRR.
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    Effect of different management systems on haematological parameters in layer chickens
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2013) Nyaulingo, Jumanne Magnus
    A study was conducted at the Department of Animal Science and Production, Sokoine University of Agriculture. The aim was to study the effect of different management systems on haematological parameters in layer chickens. Three management systems which are battery cage, deep litter and semi- intensive were involved. Ninety layer chickens, Rhode Island Red, eight weeks old were used. Thirty chickens were placed in each of the three systems. Seven chickens from each management system were selected randomly for blood collection. Blood was collected in every two weeks for two months. Blood was used to analyse for hematological parameters. It was observed that, RBC (x 106/ μl), PCV (%), Hb (g %) increased as the age of chicken was increasing. ESR (mm), MCH (pg) and MCHC (%) decreased as age of chickens was increasing. All mean values for the RBC (x 106/ μl), and WBC (x104/ μl) count, PCV (%), Hb (g %), ESR (mm), MCH (pg) and MCHC (%) did not differ (P>0.05) significantly among the management systems. No significant effect of management system on hematological parameters was observed. The differences in the values of hematological parameters among the management systems observed to be probably due to changes brought about by age and individual bird variation. Concluding that RBC (x 106/ μl), PCV (%), and Hb (g %), had a direct relationship with age while ESR (mm), MCH (pg) and MCHC (%) were indirectly related. Since no significant effect was observed in the haematological parameters for the chickens under the three management systems, then other factors such as risk of diseases, sanitation, costs should be considered in deciding which system to be used. Deep litter system is advocated to be used by the poultry keeper because of its less cost and less risk of predators, and climatic extreme changes.
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    Studies on anthelmintic activity of tithonia diversifolia in Mbinga district, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2013) Komba, Lutfrid Samwel
    Gastrointestinal nematode parasitism is a global problem in both sub-tropical and tropical countries. Due to frequent administration of chemical anthelmintics the gastrointestinal nematodes have developed resistance hence giving rise to the search of alternative anthelmintics. This study was carried out to evaluate anthelmintic effects of Tithonia diversifolia in Mbinga district, Ruvuma region, Tanzania. The study specifically dealt with evaluation of the efficacy of T. diversifolia extracts against adult Haemonchus contortus worms in a controlled critical test. Further, the toxicity of the plant was evaluated using the brine shrimp lethality test. A total of fifteen goats which were free from helminthosis were purchased and quarantined for 60 days. They were then administered 1250 larvae of Haemonchus contortus. On day 29 after infection the egg per gram of faeces (epg) count was done. The goats were randomly divided into three groups of five goats each .The groups were negative control, treated and positive control. The treatment group was administered 50 mg/kg of T. diversifolia orally and the positive control group was administered 8mg/kg of albendazole orally. The epg count was then carried out on day 4, 7, 10 and 14, after which animals were sacrificed for total worm count. The results show that Tithonia diversifolia is not effective against adult Haemonchus contortus worms based on epg count and post-mortem worm counts reduction tests. From the study, it is recommended that more studies should be carried out so as to validate the anthelmintic effects of T. diversifolia by investigating its activity on other specific species of the nematodes which parasitize animals.