Agricultural Education and Extension Collection

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    Gender roles in tomato value chain in Dodoma municipality and Kilolo district, Tanzania.
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2014) Khassa,P M .
    This study was conducted to assess gender roles in tomato value chain in Dodoma municipality and Kilolo District of Dodoma and Iringa Regions, Tanzania. The study objectives were to: (i) identify various actors in the tomato value chain; (ii) determine the roles of different gender categories in the tomato value chain; (iii) assess opportunities and constrains of different gender categories in the tomato value chain. A total of 120 respondents were randomly selected and interviewed. The cross tabulation was performed to segregate roles performed in tomato value chain by gender. Study results showed that major actors in tomato value chain in Mbabala A and Ikokoto villages are input suppliers, tomato producers, box /crate/tenga makers, box buyers, middlemen, coolies, traders,transporters and consumers. In Dodoma Municipality media people were regarded as important actors in the chain while in Ilula District box/crate creators were regarded as important actors in the chain. This implies that in agriculture there is a possibility of a same crop to have different actors involved in the chain depending on the area of operation. The analysis of value chain for a specific crop in a certain area is crucial in order to identify and involve important actors in the chain. Different gender categories play different roles identified in the tomato value chain in both study areas. It is seem that Middle aged males and females perform more than half of the activities in the tomato value chain. It is therefore recommended that any intervention aimed at improving tomato production should focus more on the identified gender categories that are important in the chain. Also opportunities and constrains in the tomato value chain were indicated.The opportunities should be taped and constrains should be addressed in order to improve tomato production and productivity.
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    The role of peasantry women initiated networks in the promotion of Community Development in Mkalama District, Tanzania
    (African Journals online and SUA, 2022-05-30) Madaha, Rasel; Shayo, Rose; Mwaipopo, Rosemarie
    Community development is a phenomenon referring to communities that can attain and sustain a better standard of living for every community member. Although the thinking is advocated by the proponents of community development, the opponents throw their trust and thrust on the market. They are of opinion that the market is the driver and engine of development, not communities. Individuals are driven by self-interest and not those of the community. On the contrary, the proponents of community development assert that communities are drivers of their development. They advocate for the development of the capabilities of communities for them to collectively take care of their development. Networking is one of the community-centred strategies to deal with the shortfalls of the market and to promote community development. However, the literature focusing on the role of women networking in addressing some of the shortfalls of the market economy is scant. As such, this study employed an exploratory research design and, an embedded multiple-case study research method, to explore the role of Village Community Networks (VCONEs), as self-initiated peasantry women’s networks, in the promotion of community development at selected wards of Mkalama District. VCONEs are networks of female peasants who engage in agricultural production during the rainy season and petty businesses during the rainy and dry season. Overall, the findings indicate that VCONEs serve as tools which enable community members to address some of the challenges of the market by collectively working together to build a better standard of living, increasing access to modern technologies, recognizing their problems, as well as attaining self-reliance and empowerment. It is recommended that the government, in collaboration with other stakeholders, need to create a platform to up-scale VCONEs to the rest of farming communities in Tanzania to boost community development and agricultural development through the mitigation of some of the shortfalls of the market economy.
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    An economic comparison between alternative rice farming systems in Tanzania using a monte carlo simulation approach
    (MDPI, 2020-07) Kadig, Ibrahim L.; Mutabazi, Khamaldin D.; Philip, Damas; Richardson, James W.; Bizimana, Jean-Claude; Mbungu, Winfred; Mahoo, Henry F.; Sieber, Stefan
    Tanzania is the second-largest producer of rice (Oryza sativa) in Eastern, Central, and Southern Africa after Madagascar. Unfortunately, the sector has been performing poorly due to many constraints, including poor agricultural practices and climate variability. In addressing the challenge, the government is making substantial investments to speed the agriculture transformation into a more modernized, commercial, and highly productive and profitable sector. Our objective was to apply a Monte Carlo simulation approach to assess the economic feasibility of alternative rice farming systems operating in Tanzania while considering risk analysis for decision-makers with different risk preferences to make better management decisions. The rice farming systems in this study comprise rice farms using traditional practices and those using some or all of the recommended system of rice intensification (SRI) practices. The overall results show 2% and zero probability of net cash income (NCI) being negative for partial and full SRI adopters, respectively. Meanwhile, farmers using local and improved seeds have 66% and 60% probability of NCI being negative, correspondingly. Rice farms which applied fertilizers in addition to improved seeds have a 21% probability of negative returns. Additionally, net income for rice farms using local seeds was slightly worthwhile when the transaction made during the harvesting period compared to farms applied improved varieties due to a relatively high price for local seeds. These results help to inform policymakers and agencies promoting food security and eradication of poverty on the benefits of encouraging improved rice farming practices in the country. Despite climate variability, in Tanzania, it is still possible for rice farmers to increase food production and income through the application of improved technologies, particularly SRI management practices, which have shown a promising future.
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    Profitability of gliricidia-maize system in selected dryland areas of Dodoma region, Tanzania
    (MDPI, 2021-12) Swamila, Martha; Philip, Damas; Akyoo, Adam Meshack; Manda, Julius; Mwinuka, Lutengano; Smethurst, Philip J.; Sieber, Stefan; Kimaro, Anthony Anderson
    Declining soil fertility and climatic extremes are among major problems for agricultural production in most dryland agro-ecologies of sub-Saharan Africa. In response, the agroforestry tech- nology intercropping of Gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.)) and Maize (Zea mays L.) was developed to complement conventional soil fertility management technologies. However, diversified information on the profitability of Gliricidia-Maize intercropping system in dryland areas is scanty. Using data from the Gliricidia and maize models of the Next Generation version of the Agriculture Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM), this study estimates the profitability of the Gliricidia-Maize system relative to an unfertilized sole maize system. Results show significant heterogeneity in profitability indicators both in absolute and relative economic terms. Aggregated over a 20-year cycle, Gliricidia- Maize intercropping exhibited a higher Net Present Value (NPV = Tsh 19,238,798.43) and Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR = 4.27) than the unfertilized sole maize system. The NPV and BCR of the latter were Tsh 10,934,669.90 and 3.59, respectively. Moreover, the returns to labour per person day in the Gliricidia-Maize system was 1.5 times those of the unfertilized sole maize system. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the profitability of the Gliricidia-Maize system is more negatively affected by the decrease in output prices than the increase in input prices. A 30% decrease in the former leads to a decrease in NPV and BCR by 38% and 30%, respectively. Despite the higher initial costs of the agroforestry establishment, the 30% increase in input prices affects more disproportionally unfertilized sole maize than the Gliricidia-Maize system in absolute economic terms, i.e., 11.1% versus 8.8% decrease in NPV. In relative economic terms, an equal magnitude of change in input prices exerts the same effect on the unfertilized sole maize and the Gliricidia-maize systems. This result implies that the monetary benefits accrued after the first year of agroforestry establishment offset the initial investment costs. The Gliricidia-Maize intercropping technology therefore is profitable with time, and it can contribute to increased household income and food security. Helping farmers to overcome initial investment costs and manage agroforestry technologies well to generate additional benefits is critical for the successful scaling of the Gliricidia-Maize intercropping technology in dryland areas of Dodoma, Tanzania.
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    Major agricultural extension providers in Tanzania
    (kyoto university IRR, 2001-12) Rutatora, Deogratias F.; Mattee, Amon Z.
    While agricultural extension services in Tanzania have mostly been provided and financed by the public sector, the landscape is changing with regard to the provision of extension services in the country. Observations reveal that several non-governmental organi- sations (NGOs) and farmer-led initiatives have, over time, supplemented extension service delivery of the public extension services with cost-sharing, but these experiences have not been formally integrated into the extension system nor has their potential to reduce public expenditure and improve quality of extension service been considered. As the government continues to face financial difficulties, it has started to reconsider the issue of public exten- sion service and is currently entertaining the possibilities of gradually divesting the public sector of extension, leaving the private sector and users to take an increasing responsibility. This paper brings to light major providers of extension services in Tanzania to help inform decision-makers on how various actors can support agricultural extension on a sustainable basis.
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    Factors that affect the adoption of improved maize varieties by smallholder farmers in Central Oromia, Ethiopia.
    (Iiste, 2015) Teferi, Abadi; Philip, Damas; Jaleta, Moti
    This study aims at identifying factors which affect the adoption of improved maize varieties in three woredas in Central Oromia, Ethiopia. The study utilized cross-sectional farm household level data collected by CIMMYT from 300 randomly selected sample households in 2012/13. Both descriptive and econometric methods have been used to analyze the data. The descriptive statistics were utilized to compare adopters and non-adopters. The logit model was employed to assess the adoption determinants.The descriptive analyses results show the existence of significant mean and proportion difference between adopters and non-adopters in terms of farmer characteristics. Adoption of the improved maize varieties among households was found to be positively influenced by adult-literacy, family size, livestock wealth, access to output market and credit access for the new varieties. On the other hand, farmer associations, distance to main markets and fertilizer credit negatively influenced adoption. Thus, the finding of this study revealed that educating farmers, strengthening extension services, improving farmer associations and improving market opportunities are some of the measures that need to be taken to enhance adoption of improved maize varieties by farmers.
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    Sources of technical efficiency among smallholders maize farmers in Babati district, Tanzania
    (2013-07) Baha, Michael; Temu, Andrew; Philip, Damas
    Maize yield in Tanzania has been decreasing in the past few years. The decline has been attributed to many factors. This paper assesses production efficiency and its determinants among maize farmers in Babati district. The paper uses data collected from 122 maize farmers residing in six villages in the study district. A stochastic frontier model has been used to determine the sources of inefficiency among maize farmers in the study area. The results show that the mean technical efficiency score for famers in the study area is 62.3%. This implies that there is a significant room for increasing maize yield in the study area if farmers use the resources at their disposal efficiently. Moreover, the results show that the efficiency of maize farmers in the study area is influenced by farm size, formal education, number of plots owned by the farmer, frequency of contacts with extension officers, and the use of insecticides. It is therefore plausible to argue that improving farmers’ access to extension services and important inputs such as insecticides will have a significant influence on maize yield in the study area.
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    Analysis of start, end and length of the rainfall seasons in Mbeya, southwestern highland in Tanzania
    (Creative Commons CC, 2018-07) Kimambo, Offoro Neema; Ndeto, Emmanuel Lubango
    Tanzania like any other developing countries is depending on uncertain rainfall for their subsistence and commercial agriculture. In this paper the start and end of rains for Mbeya Meteorological Station in Tanzania Mainland was analyzed and critically examined. Data were kindly given by Tanzania Meteorological Agency (TMA) during face to face Statistics in Applied Climatology (fSIAC) workshop which was held at Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) the year 2013 prior to online Course on Statistics in Applied climatology (eSIAC). In this study data were analyzed using Instat (for windows version 3.3.7) package developed by the Statistical Services Centre of the University of Reading. The analysis showed that much of rains start early December all the way to May. There is also 50 percent chance of having below and above the mean for both total annual rainfall and number of rains, in other word one in two years the total rains are below means likewise the number of rain days.
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    Farmers' Access and Use of Mobile Phones for Improving the Coverage of Agricultural Extension Service: A Case of Kilosa District, Tanzania
    (IGI Global, 2016-08) Sanga, Camilius; Mlozi, Prof M R S; Tumbo, Siza; Haug, Ruth
    This study sought to investigate on the access and use of mobile phones for improving the coverage of agricultural extension services among farmers in the pre-harvest stages of maize value chain in Kilosa district. The study examined the use of mobile phones as a means for improving the coverage of agricultural extension services. The study adapted a cross sectional study design and a multistage sampling technique. Data were mainly collected using structured questionnaires. The results revealed that majority of respondents used mobile phones and had a positive attitude on the contribution of mobile phone in their farming business. The study results also indicated that mobile phones offered an affordable solution to farmers’ information needs and information requirements. The study concluded that the use of mobile phone to communicate agricultural information depends on information needs of farmers. The study recommended that farmers need to be encouraged and supported to access and use mobile phones in their farming business
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    Measuring Farm-level Technical Efficiency of Urban Agriculture in Tanzanian Towns: the Policy Implications
    (2015-01) Mwajombe, Kizito K.; Mlozi, Malongo R. S
    Technical Efficiency Indices of Urban Agriculture (UA) were determined using the stochastic frontier production function which incorporates a model of technical inefficiency effects. In 2010, farm-level data of 270 urban agriculture farmers in Tanzanian urban wards of towns of Arusha, Dar es Salaam and Dodoma was obtained using semi-structured questionnaires. The parameters were estimated simultaneously with those of the model of inefficiency effects. Using the maximum likelihood estimation technique, asymptotic parameter estimates were evaluated to describe efficiency determinants. Study results revealed that a mean technical efficiency index (TEI) of 0.72 was achieved implying that output from urban agriculture production could be increased by 28% using available technologies. Despite of urban farmers having entrepreneurial acumen, they faced several challenges in resource allocation. Land size, total variable costs, and extension service charges negatively impacted on TEI. The study recommends that the government using urban agriculture and livestock extension agents should explore profitable levels for promoting UA enterprises to ascertain profitable TEI levels and UA units.
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    Sustainable Agriculture Intensification, Extension and Advisory Services and Institutional Approaches in Africa
    (INNOVAFRICA, 2018-07) Ahmad, Athman K.; Bosena, Tegegne; Sanga, Camilus A.; Mwaseba, Dennis L.; Njarui, Donald; Hundessa, Feyisa; Gatheru, M.; Gichangi, A. W.; Gichangi, E. M.; Selemani, Ismail S.; Mignouna, Jacob; Tuyisenge, Jacqueline; Jessica, N.; Hella, Joseph P.; Kibebew, Kibret; Dusengemungu, Leonidas; Katundu, Mangani; Mahreteab, Tesfai; Mengistu, Ketema; Modiselle, M. E.; Mafunanji, Magalasi; Muhammad, L. W.; Mupenzi, Mutimura; Murage, A. W.; Myeni, L.; Nigussie, Dachassa; Amuri, Nyambilila; Westengen, Ola; Guthiga, Paul; Sita, Ghimire; Nchimbi-Msolla, Susan; Lemma, Tesfaye; Thavhana, M. P.; Tsubo, M.; Ndolo, Victoria
    The first part of this report gives an overview of the state of agriculture and food and nutrition security (FNS) challenges for Africa in general and in particular for sub saharan Africa (SSA). Further, the report briefly assessed the general performance of the four dimensions of FNS in SSA. It also outlines the policy responses and programmes by the African governments towards achieving FNS. This was followed by describing the concept of various forms of sustainable intensification systems including the sustainable agriculture intensification systems (SAIs), agriculture extension and advisory services (EASs) and innovative institutional approaches (IIAs). In general, Part I of this report reviews the various agriculture technologies, extension and institutions approaches implemented and promoted in the past and present in Africa and other relevant regions of the world. A detailed descriptions is provided in the second part of this report by six case study countries of the InnovAfrica project.
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    Tomato value chain information system in tanzania:lessons from Kilolo District and Dodoma Municipality, Tanzania
    (Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran, 2020) Nyamba, S. Y.; Kalungwizi, V. J.; Mlozi, M.R.S; Busindeli, I. M.; Kilima, F. T. M.; Msuya-Bengesi, C. P.; Chija, B. B.; Mvena, Z. S. K.; Gabagambi, M; Gjotterud, S. M.; Kiranga, E
    T he major challenge for the tomato farmers is getting a fair price at the market price given that there are many actors involved in the tomato value chain. Given this situation, this project's goal was to improve communication pathways in dissemination of agricultural market information in tomato value chains in Iringa and Dodoma Regions in Tanzania. The specific objectives were to: identify and assess the status of tomato production and information sharing among the various actors in every node in the tomato value chain; identify the communication and knowledge dissemination pathways in tomato value chain; examine the efficacy of communication and knowledge dissemination pathways in tomato value chain; establish the innovative communication and knowledge dissemination pathways in tomato value chain, and enhance capacity and empower the various stakeholders involved in the tomato value chain. One way of achieving the goal of the study was to come up with an innovative communication pathway that would improve the marketing of tomatoes by directly linking farmers to markets. The study has developed a system called Tomato Value Chain Information System (ToVCIS). The system links famers to different markets in the Tanzania by sending text messages to a control centre which is fed with prices on a daily basis by government employed market
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    Climate change, smallholders farmers’ adaptation in Pangani Basin and Pemba implications for redd+ initiatives
    (Climate Change Iimpacts and Adaptation and Mitigation Project (CCIAM) - Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA), 2016) Hella, J. P.; Sanga, G. J.; Haug, R.; Mziray, N.; Senga, H.; Haji, M.; Lyimo, S.; Moshi, A.; Mboya, S.; Bakar, M.
    This chapter is based on a study conducted in Pangani river basin and on Pemba Island in Tanzania. The main objective of the study was to assess evidence of the climate, small farmers’ adaptive strategies and associated implications for REDD+ initiatives in the country. Historical climate data over more than 30 years were collected from nine stations in Pangani river basin and on Pemba. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from 11 villages purposively selected based on the location (upper and lower basin and altitude). A questionnaire survey and Focus Group discussions were used to collect data from 387 respondents and 40 key informants, respectively. The respondents for the survey were randomly selected from 11 study villages. The results show evidence of rising temperatures, changing rainfall patterns, an increase in extreme weather conditions such as droughts, floods and hurricanes and the shifting distribution of pests and diseases. Expert opinions also confirmed major changes in climate parameters in recent years. About 89 percent and 95 percent of small-scale farmers perceive that there is a change in temperature and rainfall, respectively, and linked the changes to crop types, cropping patterns, and outbreak of human, animal and crop diseases in their respective areas. Results from Multinomial Logit Model indicate that farmers’ choices of climate change coping strategy depend on their access to extension services and credit, their education level, location as well as experience. Adaptive strategies range from change of crop types, farmers and livestock keepers moving to new areas near water sources and forests and increased farm activities. Unfortunately most of the smallholders’ adaptive strategies are compromising REDD+ initiatives. The study concludes that successful REDD+ initiatives within the framework of smallholders adaptive strategies to impacts of the climate changes requires externally sourced support for sustainable adaptation to climate changes.
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    Challenges and opportunities for implementing an intersectoral approach in malaria control in Tanzania
    (Tanzania Journal of Health Research, 2015) Mlozi, M.R.S; Rumisha, F.S; Mlacha, T; Bwana, V.M; Shayo, E.H; Mayala, B.K; Malima, R.C; Mashoto, K.O; Mboera, L.E.G
    Background: Malaria is a complex health problem related to socio-economic and environmental factors that cut across a number of sectors. Establishing intersectoral linkages is important to facilitate joint efforts to address the problem at all levels. The objectives of this study were to explore key sectoral engagements in malaria control policy formulation and implementation, and to determine decision and policy makers’ opinions about different sectoral activities that contribute to malaria transmission and control in Tanzania. Methods: This study included documentary review, self-administered interviews and group discussion. Interviews and group discussions involved key informants at district and national levels. The sectors involved were health, agriculture, environment, livestock, fisheries, education, works, irrigation, water resources, land development, forestry, and community development. Results: Institutions and organizations that were involved in the development of the previous and current National Malaria Strategic Plan (2007-2013 and 2013-2020) were the Ministries of Health and Social Welfare, Prime Minister’s Office of Regional Administration and Local Government, Public universities and non-governmental organizations. All the individuals involved in the development of the plans were either medical or health professionals. According to key informants, sectoral activities identified to contribute to malaria transmission included farming systems, deforestation, fishing, nomadic pastoralism, household water storage, water resource development projects, road and house construction and mining. The lack of intersectoral approaches in malaria control programme included the facts that the Health Sector does not involve other sectors during planning and development of policy guidelines, differences in sectoral mandates and management culture, lack of a national coordinating framework and lack of budget for intersectoral activities. Conclusion: The current strategies for malaria control in Tanzania need to address socio-economic and development activities across sectors and emphasise the need for intersectoral collaboration. It is recommended that the future of malaria control strategies should, therefore, be broad based and intersectoral in planning and implementation.
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    Determinants of students’ academic achievement in agricultural sciences: A case study of secondary schools in Katsina State, Nigeria
    (NET Journals, 2015-03-18) Abdullah, H. A.; Mlozi, M.R.S; Nzalayaimisi, G. K.
    Education is viewed as a tool for change. Globally, efforts are geared toward enhancing the educational process of students’ academic achievement in secondary schools. However, there is gap associated with differences in the students’ attributes, and the desire for parents to provide better educational opportunities to their children. To achieve the goal of this research, students from Katsina State Science and Technical Education Board (STEB) were purposively selected for the study. Random sampling technique was used to select 300 students from six secondary schools. Primary data were collected using a structured questionnaire designed to address the specific objectives of the study. Cramer’s V and stepwise regression model were used as tool of analyses to achieve the stated objectives of the study. Age of students was found statistically related to students’ academic achievement using Cramer’s V. The regression model has an R2 (.915) implying that 92% of the total variations in students’ academic achievement was accounted for by the independent variables. The F statistic was also reliably fit and statistically significant at p ≤ 0.001 confidence level. Of the nineteen variables, nine were statistically significant and show effect on students’ academic achievement. The significant variables that were positively related to academic achievement are: parent education, parent occupation, family feeding, provision of resource materials, visits to schools, provision of pocket money, and residential type. Family type and age category of parents had negative effects on students’ academic achievement. We recommend for an intensified public enlightenment and awareness campaign on family planning and child spacing as well as dilution of family resources to counter the effect of family type being a risk factor.
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    Knowledge Sharing and Communication Tools for Dialogue Issues on Productivity of Water in Agriculture in Mkoji Sub-catchment, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2003) Kasele, S. S.; Mlozi, M. R. S.; Hatibu, N.; Mahoo, H. F.
    The concept of productivity of water in agriculture is new and is understood differently by different stakeholders. Yet to apply it, all stakeholders require a common understanding. Currently there is limited understanding of how the concept can be communicated to different stakeholders. This limits the potential for dialogue to enable concerns to be resolved. This study investigated knowledge-sharing and communication tools suitable in facilitating dialogue among different stakeholders on the productivity of water in agriculture in Mkoji sub-catchment in the upper part of the Rufiji Basin, Tanzania. The study was based on a survey of multiple stakeholders of water in the study area, including direct water users in agriculture, namely farmers; water resources and agricultural experts; and water managers, especially in irrigated systems. A high proportion (87.5%) of the smallholder farmers indicated low awareness of the concept as universally defined. The experts were aware of the basic definition of productivity of water in agriculture as the ratio of total crop yield to the volume of water used. Given past experience in the study areas, knowledge sharing through farmer training, demonstration plots, field visits, radio and posters will assist in increasing the understanding of different stakeholders and thus improve dialogue.
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    Challenges and opportunities for implementing an intersectoral approach in malaria control in Tanzania
    (Tanzania Journal of Health Research, 2015) Mlozi, M. R. S.; Mlacha, T.; Bwana, V. M.; Shayo, E. H.; Mayala, B. K.; Malima, R. C.; Mashoto, K. O.; Mboera, L. E. G.
    Background: Malaria is a complex health problem related to socio-economic and environmental factors that cut across a number of sectors. Establishing intersectoral linkages is important to facilitate joint efforts to address the problem at all levels. The objectives of this study were to explore key sectoral engagements in malaria control policy formulation and implementation, and to determine decision and policy makers’ opinions about different sectoral activities that contribute to malaria transmission and control in Tanzania. Methods: This study included documentary review, self-administered interviews and group discussion. Interviews and group discussions involved key informants at district and national levels. The sectors involved were health, agriculture, environment, livestock, fisheries, education, works, irrigation, water resources, land development, forestry, and community development. Results: Institutions and organizations that were involved in the development of the previous and current National Malaria Strategic Plan (2007-2013 and 2013-2020) were the Ministries of Health and Social Welfare, Prime Minister’s Office of Regional Administration and Local Government, Public universities and non-governmental organizations. All the individuals involved in the development of the plans were either medical or health professionals. According to key informants, sectoral activities identified to contribute to malaria transmission included farming systems, deforestation, fishing, nomadic pastoralism, household water storage, water resource development projects, road and house construction and mining. The lack of intersectoral approaches in malaria control programme included the facts that the Health Sector does not involve other sectors during planning and development of policy guidelines, differences in sectoral mandates and management culture, lack of a national coordinating framework and lack of budget for intersectoral activities. Conclusion: The current strategies for malaria control in Tanzania need to address socio-economic and development activities across sectors and emphasise the need for intersectoral collaboration. It is recommended that the future of malaria control strategies should, therefore, be broad based and intersectoral in planning and implementation.
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    Assessment of livelihoods of smallholder pig keepers in Mbeya rural and Mbozi districts, Mbeya region, Tanzania
    (Academe Research Journals, 2014-12) Kamaghe, A.A.S.; Mlozi, R.S.M.; Johansen, M.V.
    This study investigated the livelihoods of 98 smallholder farmers keeping pigs in Mbeya rural and Mbozi districts in Mbeya region. The study found that respondents’ characteristics influenced decision making on pig keeping and that pig keeping overall contributed 5-10% of the households’ incomes. Pig keeping in Mbeya and Mbozi rural districts contributed to food provision and to accelerate technology scaling-up. However, two thirds of the respondents reported that they were not satisfied with the pig trade, and less than half of them knew the livestock extension agents, but two thirds said that they were not satisfied with their advisory and service delivery. Less than half of the respondents reported to having access to water for their pigs and in both districts, one third of the respondents indicated to facing problems of presence of pig diseases. This study recommends that livestock extension agents in the two study districts should educate pig keepers on good pig husbandry, assist them to form associations, and help them to find reliable markets for their pigs and secure loans.
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    Students’ Perceptions of Family Roles Influencing their Academic Achievement in Agricultural Sciences: Implications for Career Agriculture in Nigeria
    (African Research Review, 2015-01) Mlozi, R.S.M; Abdullah, H.A; Nzalayaimisi, G.K
    Education is viewed as a tool for change. Globally, efforts are geared toward enhancing the educational process of students’ academic achievement in secondary schools. However, there are differences in students’ attributes, and the desire for parents to provide better educational opportunities to their children. This study randomly sampled 300 respondents in Katsina State. The data for the study were collected using a structured questionnaire to achieve the purpose of the study and were analyzed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA and t-test. A positive and significant association was observed between age and respondents’ academic achievement (0.382, P≤0.36). Overall, majority of the respondents perceived their families as having high academic aspirations for them. It is recommended that parents should be educated about good parental roles that enhance their children’s motivation for improving their academic achievement in schools.
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    Networking by the rural poor as a mechanism for community development within the Neoliberal context: the case of women networks in Mkalama District, Singida region, Tanzania.
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2017-11-08) Madaha, Rasel
    This study examined the role of Village Community Networks (VCONE) in the promotion of community development. Specifically, the study examined “push and pull” factors for joining VCONEs; the role of VCONEs and associated gendered implications in community development; and finally, problems, challenges and coping strategies of VCONEs. The study has employed a case study research method. It has been informed by socialist feminism and social network theories. A sample of 13 VCONEs with members totalling 363 participated in the study through semi-structured questionnaires, Focus Group Discussions, transect walks, informal mapping and in-depth interviews. The overall findings of the study indicate that women, despite the barriers associated with the neoliberal context and patriarchal culture, join VCONEs to address some of the challenges of neoliberalism. Moreover, the networks have led to the attainment of community development through channelling important resources to women. Finally, VCONEs have taken some initial steps for coping with neoliberalism. Contrary to the dominant knowledge, this study has revealed that free market policies are functionless in communities with scarce resources subjecting women to new forms of patriarchal exploitation. Therefore, it is recommended that the government needs to come up with policies that specifically target victims of neoliberalism and marginalised women in particular. Concomitant with that, it is also recommended that patriarchal culture be changed to facilitate full realisation of community development. On the whole, VCONEs add to the socialist feminist theory and social network theory by serving as platforms for grassroots organisation and activism.