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    Morphological study of the effect of the cytoskeletal disruptingagent carbendazim on the oviduct of the japanese quail (coturnix coturnix japonica)
    (University of Pretoria, 2012) Kimaro, Wahabu Hamisi
    Carbendazim (methyl-2-benzimidazole carbamate), a derivative of N-substituted esters of carbamic acid, is widely used as a fungicide on field crops. Carbendazim is of major concern to human and animal health due to the presence of its metabolites and residues in the environment. Several studies have shown the effect of carbendazim on the reproductive systems of male mammals and birds. Relatively little is known of the effect of carbendazim on the female reproductive tract. Therefore, this study was undertaken to establish the effect of carbendazim on the morphological, histochemical and immunohistochemical features of selected regions of the oviduct in the Japanese quail. The functional implication for each region was also considered.
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    Impaired growth performance of wami tilapia juveniles (oreochromis urolepis) (norman, 1922) due to microplastic induced degeneration of the small intestine
    (MDPI, 2022) Mbugani, John J; Machiwa, John F; Shilla, Daniel A; Joseph, Dativa; Kimaro, Wahabu H; Khan, Farhan R
    Microplastics-induced histopathological changes in gastrointestinal tracts of fish have been widely reported. However, the translation of adverse effects in the gut to impacts on growth are understudied. This study investigated the effect of MP-induced small intestinal histomorphological changes on growth performance of Oreochromis urolepis juveniles. Sixty larvae were exposed in control (0), 1, 10, and 100 polyethylene microplastic particles (PE MPs)/mL treatment groups. On day 65, juveniles were euthanized, dissected, and biometric data were taken. Small intestine histo- morphological lesion index (HLI) was calculated following histological preparation using routine hematoxylin and eosin procedure. Results showed increase in HLI proportional to PE MPs exposure dose. These deteriorations equally reduced growth in final weight, weight gain and total length (One-Way ANOVA, p > 0.05), and Specific Growth Rate (SGR) (Kruskal–Wallis Test, p > 0.05), though there were insignificant differences between treatment groups. Condition factors of fishes in control and 1 PE MPs differed significantly and with other treatment groups (Tukey HSD, p < 0.05). Small intestines HLI correlated significantly with growth pattern (Spearman, r = 1.00, p = 0.01), condition factors (Pearson, r = − 0.995, p < 0.05), final weight, weight gain, and total length (Spearman, r = − 1.00, p = 0.01) but not with SGR. The allometric growth pattern changed towards isometric corresponding to increasing HLI. These findings suggest that MPs damaged small intestine structure and thus impaired digestion and nutrients absorption functions which disrupted growth. Such effects may impair juveniles’ ability to escape enemies, find food, and eventually reproduce, and therefore require further study.
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    Histomorphological damage in the small intestine of wami tilapia (oreochromis urolepis) (norman, 1922) exposed to microplastics remain long after depuration
    (MDPI, 2022) Mbugani, John J; Machiwa, John F; Shilla, Daniel A; Kimaro, Wahabu; Joseph, Dativa; Khan, Farhan R
    The histopathological effects of microplastics (MPs) in the gastrointestinal tracts of fish following long-term exposure and depuration are relatively understudied. This study investigated histomorphological damage in the small intestine of Oreochromis urolepis larvae following 65 d exposure to 38–45 μm of polyethylene microspheres (PE MPs) and after a recovery period of 60 d. Larval fish were assigned to each treatment group (control, 1, 10 and 100 PE MPs), where ingestion and degenerative changes in the small intestine were examined using a routine hematoxylin and eosin staining technique. The results highlighted significant PE MPs ingestion and retention proportional to exposure dose (χ 2 = 49.54; df = 2). Villi height and width and epithelial cell height were significantly affected and differed between treatment groups. Indices of damage to the small intestine organ (χ 2 = 47.37; df = 2; p < 0.05) and reaction patterns of villi, epithelial, goblet and cryptic glandular cells, leucocytic infiltration and blood congestion revealed significant occurrence of alteration as PE MPs exposure dose increased. After the recovery period, no PE MPs were observed, and villi height, width and epithelial cells showed recovery with no significant difference between treatment groups. Organ indices declined (χ 2 = 12; df = 2; p < 0.05) but remained significantly different between treatment groups, largely due to leucocytic infiltration (χ 2 = 9.08; df = 2; p < 0.05). The study demonstrated that microplastics induced small intestinal wall degeneration, but recovery in young fish occurred slowly. The damage likely compromised its digestive function, which may affect growth and reproduction. This requires further research.
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    Aspilia mossambicensis and azadirachta indica medicinal leaf powders modulate physiological parameters of nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus)
    (Taylor & Francis Group, 2019) Kapinga, Imani B; Limbu, Samwel M; Madalla, Nazael A; Kimaro, Wahabu H; Tamatamah, Rashid A
    Growing mixed-sex Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus in earthen ponds to table size is a major challenge due to its early maturity and prolific breeding. This study determined the effects of two medicinal plants; Aspilia plant, Aspilia mossambicensis and Neem tree, Azadirachta indica on hatchlings production, growth performance, feed utilization, survival and haematology of O. niloticus. Experimental diets were prepared by adding 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0 g of either A. mossambicensis or A. indica leaf powders into a kg of the control diet subsequently ad- ministered daily to twenty triplicates of O. niloticus for three months. Both A. mossambicensis and A. indica leaf powder at the used doses, reduced significantly hatchlings production of O. niloticus when compared to the control (P < .05). The lowest value of hatchlings count was found in A. indica dose 8.0 g kg −1 (P < .05). The use of A. mossambicensis leaf powder at a dose of 4.0 g kg −1 improved significantly growth performance and feed utilization (P < .05). In contrast, survival rate was not affected significantly by the two plants (P > .05). Both plants differentially increased significantly haematological parameters such as Hb concentration, packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), white blood cells (WBC), monocyte and lymphocytes while reduced significantly neutrophils and eosinophils (P < .05). In conclusion, A. mossambicensis and A. indica leaf powders control prolific breeding of O. niloticus, modulate its growth performance and feed utilization. The two plants also modulate haematological parameters of O. niloticus indicating immunological response towards stress or intoxication, however, the values obtained were not beyond the recommended range for healthy fish.
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    Morphological changes in the sperm storage tubules of the japanese quail exposed to methy-2- benzimidazole carbamate
    (Anatomy Journal of Africa, 2016) Kimaro, Wahabu
    The current investigation was an attempt to establish the effect of various doses of methyl-2- benzimidazole carbamate (carbendazim®) on the morphology of the Sperm Storage Tubules (SST) in the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Carbendazim® in sunflower oil base was administered orally at doses of 0mg/kg (control), 25mg/kg, 100mg/kg, 400mg/kg and 800mg/kg body weight. Tissue samples from Uterovaginal junction were processed for both light (LM) and Transmission electron (TEM) microscopic study following standard procedures. The result showed that, at LM level, no histopathological changes were observed at a dose of 25mg/kg b.w.t. A significant decrease in SST width and luminal diameters was observed at doses of 100mg/kg and 400mg/kg b.w.t (p < 0.05). In addition, doses of 400mg/kg and 800mg/kg b.w.t caused leukocytic infiltration and hyperaemia in the lamina propria-submucosa. At these doses SST were devoid of spermatozoa. TEM results showed pyknosis, swollen mitochondria, vacuolation and increased number of lysosomes in degenerating SST. The observed morphological changes indicate the ability of carbendazim to disrupt structural integrity of SST as well as its storage capacity. This poses a great threat to the fertility of exposed birds and thus care must be taken to reduce environmental contamination.
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    Time-course effects of carbendazim in the infundibulum of the japanese quail (coturnix coturnix japonica)
    (Anatomy Journal of Africa, 2016) Kimaro, Wahabu
    The present study was undertaken to establish the long-term effect of a single dose of carbendazim in the tubular region of the infundibulum of Japanese quail using scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. At a dose of 400mg/kg bodyweight, carbendazim in sunflower oil base was administered orally to mature Japanese quails. The control group received the oil base only. The effects of carbendazim on ultrastructural features of infundibulum were examined in spatial temporal periods post-exposure. At SEM level, loos of cilia were observed from 5 days post-exposure. At TEM level, pyknosis, karyorrhexis, swollen mitochondria, dilated RER cisternae, increased number of lysosomes and vacuoles were observed from 24 hours post-exposure. Compound cilia and loos of striated rootlets were also observed. Thickening and duplication of the basal lamina were identified from 12 days post- exposure. These results suggest oviductal regression due to carbendazim toxicity and signs of epithelial recovery at later stages post-exposure.
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    The emerging roles of the calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated t-lymphocytes pathway in nervous system functions and diseases
    (Hindawi, 2016) Kipanyula, Maulilio John; Kimaro, Wahabu Hamisi; Seke Etet, Paul F
    The ongoing epidemics of metabolic diseases and increase in the older population have increased the incidences of neurodegen- erative diseases. Evidence from murine and cell line models has implicated calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T-lymphocytes (NFAT) signaling pathway, a Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent major proinflammatory pathway, in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Neurotoxins such as amyloid-β, tau protein, and α-synuclein trigger abnormal calcineurin/NFAT signaling activities. Additionally increased activities of endogenous regulators of calcineurin like plasma membrane Ca 2+ -ATPase (PMCA) and regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) also cause neuronal and glial loss and related functional alterations, in neurodegenerative diseases, psychotic disorders, epilepsy, and traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries. Treatment with calcineurin/NFAT inhibitors induces some degree of neuroprotection and decreased reactive gliosis in the central and peripheral nervous system. In this paper, we summarize and discuss the current understanding of the roles of calcineurin/NFAT signaling in physiology and pathologies of the adult and developing nervous system, with an emphasis on recent reports and cutting-edge findings. Calcineurin/NFAT signaling is known for its critical roles in the developing and adult nervous system. Its role in physiological and pathological processes is still controversial. However, available data suggest that its beneficial and detrimental effects are context-dependent. In view of recent reports calcineurin/NFAT signaling is likely to serve as a potential therapeutic target for neurodegenerative diseases and conditions. This review further highlights the need to characterize better all factors determining the outcome of calcineurin/NFAT signaling in diseases and the downstream targets mediating the beneficial and detrimental effects.
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    A histological and ultrastructural study of gland cells in the ovary of the sexually immature ostrich (struthio camelus)
    (Asian journal of biological sciences, 2011) Kimaro, w.h
    The present study investigated the morphology of gland cells in the ovary of the sexually immature ostrich. Ovarian tissue samples were collected from slaughtered birds in commercial ostrich abattoir in South Africa. Tissue specimens were immersion fixed in 10% buffered formalin and processed routinely for light microscope. Additional samples were fixed in gluteraldehyde and processed for electron microscopy using standard techniques. Type I and II thecal gland cells were identified in both healthy and atretic follicles. Interstitial gland cells were observed in atretic follicles. Type I thecal gland cells contained oval-shaped heterochromatic nuclei surrounded by scant cytoplasm. Mitochondria, filamentous bundles and a few lipid droplets were observed in the cytoplasm. The type II thecal gland cells contained round nuclei located centrally. The cytoplasm in these cells contained materials of an intermediate electron density. Numerous lipid droplets and a few mitochondria were observed in the cytoplasm. The interstitial gland cells contained eccentrically located heterochromatic nuclei and numerous lipid droplets. The results of this study indicate that the structure of gland cells in the ovary of the sexually immature ostrich is similar to that of domestic fowl. In addition, the structure of these cells suggests the ability to synthesize and release steroid hormones.
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    Gendered asymmetry of access to knowledge for brucellosis control among pastoral communities in north-west Côte d’Ivoire
    (Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice, 2022) Babo, Stephane A. Y.; Fokou, Gilbert; Yapi, Richard B.; Mathew, Coletha; Dayoro, Arnaud K.; Kazwala, Rudovick R.; Bonfoh, Bassirou
    Brucellosis is an infectious zoonotic disease considered as a threat to public health and pastoralist livelihoods. Symptoms of the disease can lead to gender-specific ailments such as abortions in women and orchitis in men. Pastoralists and their families are at high risk of contracting the disease. Access to health information reinforces existing knowledge and contributes to disease prevention. However, in developing countries, interventions for knowledge sharing on zoonotic diseases predominantly target men. This study aimed to describe mechanisms of knowledge production and transfer on brucellosis according to gender, by assessing the way knowledge affects behaviours of pastoral communities. A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among a pastoral community (PC) of the Folon region in north-west Côte d’Ivoire. The study included transhumant pastoralists, sedentary livestock owners, shepherds and their wives. By using mixed methods, 26 semi-structured interviews were conducted, and 320 questionnaires were completed. Statistical analysis with chi-square (χ2) comparison tests was performed to compare variables between men and women. Findings were interpreted through the concept of specialisation of the social exclusion theory. We found that gender influences access to information on brucellosis and transfer of knowledge on brucellosis appeared gender-biased, especially from veterinarians towards men in the community. The social labour division and interventions of veterinarians through awareness reinforce the knowledge gap on brucellosis between men and women. Men and women consume raw milk, whilst only men in general handle animal discharges with bare hands. To improve the control of brucellosis, knowledge on best practice should be shared with pastoral communities using the One Health approach that encourages mutual learning. Innovative strategies based on gender daily tasks such as safe dairy processing by women and safe animal husbandry to expand their herd for men can be the entry point for the prevention of brucellosis.
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    Prevalence of Brucella infection and associated risk factors among children in livestock keeping communities of Morogoro, Tanzania
    (East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation, 2022) Hildegalda, C.; Komba, E.; Kazwala, R.; Mathew, Coletha
    Brucellosis is among the most common bacterial zoonotic diseases worldwide. It is estimated that up to 500,000 new human cases occur each year. Brucellosis is a priority zoonosis in most East African countries. In Tanzania, the disease is one of six priority zoonoses, however, little disease burden information is available especially in children. Children are of particular interest especially in pastoral communities due to increased risk of exposure in their routine activities associated with handling of livestock and their products. This study investigated brucellosis exposure status and associated risk factors among non-febrile children in pastoral communities. A cross-sectional design was used involving a total of 361 non-febrile children of six months to 14 years old, randomly selected from households and schools. Risk practices were evaluated using focus group discussions among selected children and thematic analysis was performed. Serum samples were collected and analyzed using Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (iELISA) in parallel. The overall seroprevalence of Brucella infection was 3.3% (95%CI, 2%-5%) determined by both RBT and iELISA. Risk practices observed and cited by children comprised of direct and indirect contact with animals and their products. These include: consumption of raw milk and their products, unhygienic handling of animals and their waste especially assisting cows during parturition. Girls/female respondents were more likely to test brucella positive than boys (male) respondents (2.23 OR, 95%CI 66%-754%). Brucellosis among non-febrile children in the study area was present at a relatively low prevalence. Risk practices for transmission of this zoonosis were also identified which included consumption of raw milk, contact with animals, their products and discharges including abortion materials which represent the basis for increased pathogen circulation in the area. General education on the epidemiology of brucellosis and prevention of infection spread should be provided to the community including children.
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    Brucellosis testing patterns at health facilities in Arusha region, northern Tanzania
    (PLOS ONE, 2022) Lukambagire, AbdulHamid Settenda; Shirima, Gabriel Mkulima; Shayo, Damas Davis; Mathew, Coletha; Yapi, Richard B.; Kasanga, Christopher Julius; Mmbaga, Blandina Theophile; Kazwala, Rudovick Reuben; Halliday, Jo E. B.
    Background Brucellosis is listed as one of six priority zoonoses in Tanzania’s One Health strategic plan which highlights gaps in data needed for the surveillance and estimation of human brucello- sis burdens. This study collected data on current testing practices and test results for human brucellosis in Arusha region, northern Tanzania. Methods Retrospective data were extracted from records at 24 health facilities in Arusha region for the period January 2012 to May 2018. Data were captured on: the test reagents used for brucellosis, procurement and testing protocols, the monthly number of patients tested for brucellosis and the monthly number testing positive. Generalised linear mixed models were used to evaluate relationships between health facility characteristics and the probability that brucellosis testing was conducted in a given month, and the proportion of individuals testing positive. Results Four febrile Brucella agglutination tests were used widely. The probability of testing for bru- cellosis in a given month was significantly associated with an interaction between year of testing and facility ownership. Test probability increased over time with more pronounced increases in privately owned as compared to government facilities. The proportion of individ- uals testing positive for brucellosis was significantly associated with facility type and district, with individuals tested in hospitals in Meru, Monduli and Ngorongoro districts more likely to test positive. Conclusions Febrile Brucella agglutination tests, known for their poor performance, were the mainstay of brucellosis testing at health facilities in northern Tanzania. The study indicates that historical data on human brucellosis in Arusha and other regions are likely to provide an inaccurate measure of true disease burden due to poor performance of the tests used and variation in testing practices. Measures to address these identified shortcomings could greatly improve quality of testing and surveillance data on brucellosis and ultimately inform prevention and control of this priority disease.
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    Crossing the line: seroprevalence and risk factors for transboundary animal diseases along the Tanzania-Zambia border
    (Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, a section of the journal Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 2022) Lysholm, Sara; Lindahl, Johanna F.; Munyeme, Musso; Misinzo, Gerald; Mathew, Coletha; Alvåsen, Karin; Dautu, George; Linde, Siri; Mitternacht, Lydia; Olovsson, Emelie; Wilén, Elsa; Berg, Mikael; Wensman, Jonas J.
    Transboundary pathogens pose a threat to livelihood security in countries such as Zambia and Tanzania. This study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV), sheep and goat pox virus (SGPV), Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and Brucella spp. in sheep and goats along the Tanzania-Zambia border. Another aim was to assess the association between certain predictor variables and seroprevalence, focusing on trade and proximity to an international border, to a town and to the Tanzania-Zambia highway. During September-October 2018, 486 serum samples from small ruminants in Zambia and 491 in Tanzania were collected and analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). A questionnaire focused on management strategies was administered to each household. The animal-level seroprevalence in Zambia was 0.21% [95% confidence interval (CI) (0.01–1.14) for PPRV, 1.03% (95% CI 0.33–2.39) for FMDV, 0% (95% CI 0–0.76) for SGPV, 2.26% (95% CI 1.14–4.01) for RVFV and 1.65% (95% CI 0.71–3.22) for Brucella spp.]. In Tanzania, animal-level seroprevalence was 2.85% (95% CI 1.57–4.74) for PPRV, 16.9% (95% CI 13.7–20.5) for FMDV, 0.20% (95% CI 0.01–1.13) for SGPV, 3.26% (95% CI 1.87–5.24) for RVFV and 20.0% (95% CI 14.5–26.5) for Brucella spp. For PPRV (OR 6.83, 95% CI 1.37–34.0, p = 0.019) and FMDV (OR 5.68, 95% CI 1.58–20.3, p = 0.008), herds situated more than 30 km from an international border were more likely to be seropositive, while being located 10–30 km (OR 4.43, 95% CI 1.22–16.1 p = 0.024) from a border was identified as a risk factor for Brucella spp. For FMDV (OR 79.2, 95% CI 4.52–1388.9, p = 0.003), being situated within 30 km from a town was associated with seropositivity. Furthermore, contact with wild ruminants (OR 18.2, 95% CI 1.36–244), and the presence of sheep in the household (OR 5.20, 95% CI 1.00–26.9, p = 0.049), was associated with seropositivity for PPRV, and FMDV. No significant associations between trade or distance to the Tan-Zam highway and seroprevalence were found. We recommend that the impact of trade and proximity to borders, towns and roads should be further evaluated in larger studies, ideally incorporating aspects such as temporal trade fluctuations.
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    Antimicrobial activity of bidens pilosa leaves extracts against staphylococcus aureus and escherichia coli
    (Tanzania Veterinary Association Proceedings, 2021) Mohamed, S. A.; Mathew, C.
    Resistance against synthetic antimicrobial agents is one of the major global public health challenges that compel scientists to search for alternatives including those of plants origin. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli are bacteria responsible for a variety of infections and diseases that causes significant morbidity and mortality in humans and animals. E. coli is widely distributed in nature and commonly found in lower gastro intestinal tracts of most warm- blooded animals associated with urinary tract infections and enterocolitis in humans and colibacillosis in poultry. This study was carried out to investigate antimicrobial activity of methanolic leaf extracts of Bidens pilosa against S. aureus and E. coli. Agar well diffusion method was used to assess antimicrobial activity of the leaf extracts at 20%, 50% and 70% concentrations respectively based on measured zone of inhibition. The leaf extracts of Bidens pilosa produced significant zone of inhibition indicating its antimicrobial activity against E. coli and S. aureus. The antimicrobial activity was demonstrated in all concentrations however, the highest zone of inhibition (18.5mm and 32mm) for E. coli and S. aureus respectively was at 70% concentration. The results shows that Bidens pilosa leaf extracts have antimicrobial activity against the tested bacteria and have the potential for further development including identification of active components that can be tested for treatment of E. coli and S. aureus associated conditions. Key words: antimicrobial resistance, medicinal-plants, natural-products, blackjack, E. coli, S. aureus
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    Cytological and histopathological characteristics of canine transmissible venereal tumour in male and female dogs before and after vincristine treatment
    (Tanzania Veterinary Association Proceedings, 2021) Katjimune, J. T.; Mathew, C.
    Canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT) is a neoplasia naturally transmitted in susceptible dogs through coitus. CTVT has a worldwide distribution, with a high prevalence in tropical and sub-tropical urban environments. The study aimed at evaluating CTVT lesions in local breeds of dogs and to assess morphological changes based on sex before and after administration of vincristine sulphate. Clinical and gross morphology, fine needle aspirates cytology (FNAC) and routine histopathology methods were used. Two FNAC and histopathological microscopic slide sections from each of the seven sampled dogs were stained with Giemsa stain and Hematoxylin and Eosin. All dogs were treated with vincristine once weekly over a six weeks period after which clinical morphological and histopathological changes were assessed. Grossly, before treatment the tumour masses appeared irregular, cauliflower like with tendency to bleed, sizes ranged from ≥5cm to ≤2cm with or without metastasis to regional lymph nodes. Cytologically, the tumours had homogenous, sheet-like cellular mass. Cytoplasm with punctate vacuoles, anisokaryosis with anisonucleoliosis and coarse to reticulate nuclear chromatin were seen. Lymphocytoid cell pattern was dominant cell type. Histopathology showed sheets of round cells with nuclear and cytoplasmic variations. Histopathology of the treated dog revealed hyper- cellularity, absence of nucleoli, prominent mitotic figures, reduced cell size and presence of inflammatory cells. There was no difference on the cellular changes after vincristine treatment between female and male dogs. Cytology and histopathology showed that vincristine sulphate suppresses the development of tumour through alteration of cellular morphology with no difference between male and female dogs.
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    Knowledge, attitude and practices of frontline health workers in relation to detection of brucellosis in rural settings of Tanzania: a cross-sectional study
    (BMC, 2022) Belinda, Joseph Mligo; Calvin, Sindato; Yapi, Richard B; Mathew, Coletha; Mkupasi, Ernatus; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Karimuribo, Esron D
    Background: Brucellosis an important zoonotic disease worldwide, which frequently presents as an undiferentiated febrile illness with otherwise varied and non-specifc clinical manifestations. Despite its importance, there are few reports on its awareness among frontline health workers. This study aimed at assessing the baseline knowledge, atti tude and practice (KAP) related to detection and management of brucellosis among frontline health workers (FHWs) namely; healthcare workers (HWs) and community health workers (CHWs). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2019 to January 2020 in Kilosa and Chalinze dis tricts of Tanzania. Data on demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude and practices regarding brucellosis were collected from the study participants using a structured questionnaire. Interviews were conducted with 32 HWs and 32 CHWs who were systematically selected in study districts. Chi square/fsher Exact was used to assess the associa tion between sociodemographic variables and those related to knowledge, attitude and practices. Results: Overall, a total of 30 (93.8%) HWs and nine (28.1%) CHWs from the study districts heard about brucello sis, with (34.4%) of HWs having knowledge about the causative organism. Overall, knowledge showed almost half (46.9%) HWs and (28.1%) CHWs were aware of the symptoms, clinical signs, diagnosis and control regarding brucel losis. Knowledge diference was statistically signifcant with HWs’ age (p=0.016). Almost half (46.9%) HWs and less than quarter (12.5%) CHWs had good practices regarding brucellosis control. Almost three quarters (71.9%) of HWs and (21.9%) CHWs had positive attitude regarding brucellosis control; overall attitude was statistically signifcant with CHWs age (p=0.028) and education level (p=0.024). Lack of awareness and unavailability of diagnostic tools were the main challenges faced by FHWs in the two districts. Conclusion: The majority of participants were not aware of human brucellosis. Moreover, their overall knowledge was inadequate and the common practices were diagnostic tools, and adequate knowledge to manage brucellosis cases. These fndings highlight the need to strengthen frontline health workers knowledge, practices and diagnostic capacities related to brucellosis
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    Knowledge gain and adoption among farm women through interactive multimedia in Kilosa and Sengerema districts, Tanzania
    (Tanzania Journal of Development Studies, 2021) Ngowi, Edwin; Mathew, Coletha; Mwakalobo, Adam
    This paper examines knowledge gain and adoption among farm women with access to information and improved communication. This is because access to information and improved communication is a crucial requirement for agricultural development. In rural areas, group approach, “self-help groups (SHGs),” have been initiated among farm women using Interactive Multimedia Compact Disc (IMCD). The IMCD emerged as a potential learning tool to train farmers about a particular agricultural-knowledge. A theoretical and conceptual framework for an adoption pathway is reviewed in which farmers move from knowledge gain to adoption over time. This study was conducted in Sengerema and Kilosa districts with telecentres that train farm women in SHGs using IMCD. A total of 180 farm women were randomly and equally selected. Simple correlation and multiple regressions were used to assess association and influence of socioeconomic characteristics on knowledge gain and adoption. It was established that education status and mass media exposure exhibited a positive and significant relationship. Age and farm statuses showed negative association with knowledge gain. Farm status and innovativeness showed significant and positive relationship with knowledge adoption. Farming experience exhibited negative and significant relationship with knowledge adoption. Thus, while preparing IMCD, one should take care these variables for knowledge gain and adoption. The inferences on knowledge gain and adoption imply that longer periods will be required for majority of farm women to use the technology and to have the decision leading to adoption.