Forest Biology Collection

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    Quantification of above ground carbon stocks in afromontane vegetation of image forest reserve (IFR), southern highlands of Tanzania
    (East African Journal of Forestry and Agroforestry, 2020) Kayombo, Canisius John; Ndangalasi, Dr. Henry Joseph; Mligo, Dr. Cosmas; Giliba, Richard Alphonce; Shirima, Dr. Deo D
    Evaluating the aboveground carbon stocks is important for scientific awareness of the vegetation condition. The study was conducted from August to September 2019 to quantify the aboveground carbon (AGC) stocks in Afromontane vegetation of Image Forest Reserve (IFR), in southern highlands of Tanzania. Ground surveys were conducted to identify the existing land cover types in IFR. A total of 170, 20 m x 40 m rectangular sample plots were systematically set on the land cover types at an interval of 250 m. The standing tree species with DBH ≥5 cm were identified and measured for their DBH (cm) at 1.3 m from the ground. Tree stumps were measured at 5 cm from the ground. Allometric equations were used to calculate the aboveground biomass and multiplied by a carbon factor of 0.47 (0.5) to get AGC. ANOVA was applied to compare the AGC within land cover types. Grounded on this study’s findings, an overall AGtC Ha -1 per land cover type ranged from 7,190.59 ± 9.49. Forest stored the largest AGtC Ha -1 (7,190.59) trailed by woodland (1,662.13), shrub land and grassland (171.54), and bare land and rock outcrops (9.49). The calculated AGC of each tree species per hectare (AGtC Ha -1 ) ranged from 878.14 ± 0.02. This study revealed a significant difference in AGtC Ha –1 within the forest, woodland, shrub land and grassland, bare land and rock outcrops. Out of the 187 measured tree species, 7 were known to contribute the highest AGtC Ha -1 (878.14 ± 411.61), 14 were in the medium category (322.42 ± 103.28), 53 each contributed low (94.31 ± 10.00), and 113 each contributed very low (9.28 ± 0.02). Further study is needed to assess the whole carbon
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    Deforestation and connectivity among protected areas of Tanzania
    (MDPI, 2020-02-04) Gizachew, Belachew; Rizzi, Jonathan; Shirima, Deo D; Zahabu, Eliakimu
    Protected Areas (PAs) in Tanzania had been established originally for the goal of habitat, landscape and biodiversity conservation. However, human activities such as agricultural expansion and wood harvesting pose challenges to the conservation objectives. We monitored a decade of deforestation within 708 PAs and their unprotected buffer areas, analyzed deforestation by PA management regimes, and assessed connectivity among PAs. Data came from a Landsat based wall-to-wall forest to non-forest change map for the period 2002–2013, developed for the definition of Tanzania’s National Forest Reference Emissions Level (FREL). Deforestation data were extracted in a series of concentric bands that allow pairwise comparison and correlation analysis between the inside of PAs and the external buffer areas. Half of the PAs exhibit either no deforestation or significantly less deforestation than the unprotected buffer areas. A small proportion (10%; n = 71) are responsible for more than 90% of the total deforestation; but these few PAs represent more than 75% of the total area under protection. While about half of the PAs are connected to one or more other PAs, the remaining half, most of which are Forest Reserves, are isolated. Furthermore, deforestation inside isolated PAs is significantly correlated with deforestation in the unprotected buffer areas, suggesting pressure from land use outside PAs. Management regimes varied in reducing deforestation inside PA territories, but differences in protection status within a management regime are also large. Deforestation as percentages of land area and forested areas of PAs was largest for Forest Reserves and Game Controlled areas, while most National Parks, Nature Reserves and Forest Plantations generally retained large proportions of their forest cover. Areas of immediate management concern include the few PAs with a disproportionately large contribution to the total deforestation, and the sizeable number of PAs being isolated. Future protection should account for landscapes outside protected areas, engage local communities and establish new PAs or corridors such as village-managed forest areas.
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    Forest cover and land use change in Ngumburuni forest reserve, Rufiji district, Tanzania
    (Macrothink Institute, 2013-12-01) Kimaro, Jerome; Lulandala, Luther
    The present study was carried in Ngumburuni Forest Reserve (NFR), Rufiji District, Coast Region, Tanzania to determine the status of forest vegetation cover under the influence of land use intensification in the surrounding environment over the period of 1985 to 2008. Socio-economic surveys were conducted to gather information pertaining to land use and causes of forest cover changes from three adjacent villages namely: Umwe north, Muyuyu and Mangwi. Landsand TM satellite imagery approach was, also, used to reflect on the forest vegetation cover dynamics over time using satellite images of 1985, 1995 and 2004 years. The results revealed that the major causes of changes in vegetation cover in Ngumburuni forest reserve were the existence of several forest management practices such as cultivation, logging and charcoaling. Similarly, analysis of satellite images confirmed expanding and shrinkage of some vegetation covers within the forest over time. The changes were more pronounced in the period 1995 to 2004 compared to the period 1985 to 1995. To reduce further degradation of the forest, several measures are suggested in this study.
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    Pastoralists’ perceptions on an invasive alien plant parthenium hysterophorus and its management control in Simanjiro district, Tanzania
    (International Journal of Research-GRANTHAALAYAH, 2020-08) Macrice, Samora A; Shirima, Deo D; Witt, Arne; Kilewa, Ramadhan; Musese, Leticia J
    The Maasai pastoralist community resides in Simanjiro District, Manyara Region, Tanzania. As a pastoralist community they are largely dependent on rangelands as a source of forage for their livestock. However, plant invasions are threatening rangeland productivity, displacing valuable forage species, leading to a reduction in livestock populations. The noxious weed Parthenium hysterophorus has recently been established in Simanjiro District and may pose a significant threat to livelihoods if effective control strategies are not put in place. This study was therefore conducted to determine pastoralists’ understanding of P. hysterophorus in Simanjiro District, Tanzania. Semi-structured and open-ended questionnaires were used to collect information on, among others, the date of introduction, means of spread, area coverage, effects of P. hysterophorus on livestock health and management control for P. hysterophorus. Pastoralists were unaware of when P. hysterophorus was introduced although they mentioned vehicles, people and livestock to be the main vectors of introduction and spread. They confirmed that P. hysterophorus has little/some expanding its range since it was first noticed at the beginning of this decade. Furthermore, most pastoralists were not aware of the effects of Parthenium weed in livestock although few reported it causing distasteful and less milk and diarrhoea after consuming the weed. There were no major efforts in place to control Parthenium weed. Therefore, efforts need to be made to motivate pastoralists through community awareness campaigns to impart knowledge on how to control
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    Evaluation of the efficacy of the crude extracts of Capsicum frutescens, Citrus limon and Opuntia vulgaris against Newcastle disease in domestic fowl in Tanzania
    (Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd, 1999-02) Mtambo, M.M.A; Mushi, E. J; Kinabo, L.D.B; Maeda-Machang’u, A; Mwamengele, G.L.M; Yongolo, M.G.S.; Temu, R. P. C
    Prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of a combination of Capsicum frutescens (red pepper), Citrus limon (lemon) and Opuntia 6ulgaris (prickly pear) against Newcastle disease (ND) in domestic fowl were evaluated. Eighty-eight broiler chickens were divided into five groups. Birds from three groups were inoculated with velogenic ND virus strain, whereas birds from two groups were left as controls. Two groups received a mixture of the plant extract three days prior to inoculation and birds from one group were given the plant extract for two days following development of clinical signs. Blood samples were collected for haemaglutination inhibition tests (HI) for detection of ND virus antibodies. Body weights were monitored during the experiment. Three birds died from the group that was inoculated with ND virus and treated with the plant extract; two died from the group that received the plant extract as a prophylaxis and inoculated with ND virus; and one bird died from the group that was inoculated with ND virus but not given the plant extract. No death was observed in any of the birds in the control groups. Antibody titers for ND virus rose four-fold in the inoculated birds but remained low in the un-inoculated groups. Mean body weights of birds in group B declined markedly compared to the other groups. The results indicated that there was no prophylactic or therapeutic value of the plant extract against ND. The plant extract showed a negative effect on body weights in birds with ND. © 1999 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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    Towards transferable functions for extraction of Non-timber Forest Products: A case study on charcoal production in Tanzania
    (Elsevier, 2012-05) Schaafsma, M; Morse-Jones, S; Posen, P; Swetnam, R.D; Balmford, A; Bateman, I.J; Burgess, N.D; Chamshama, S.A.O; Fisher, B; Green, R.E; Hepelwa, A.S; Hernández-Sirvent, A; Kajembe, G.C; Kulindwa, K; Lund, J.F; Mbwambo, L; Meilby, H; Ngaga, Y.M; Theilade, I; Treue, T; Vyamana, V.G; Turner, R.K
    Mapping the distribution of the quantity and value of forest benefits to local communities is useful for forest management, when socio-economic and conservation objectives may need to be traded off. We develop a modelling approach for the economic valuation of annual Non-Timber Forest Product (NTFP) extraction at a large spatial scale, which has 4 main strengths: (1) it is based on household production functions using data of actual household behaviour, (2) it is spatially sensitive, using a range of explanatory variables related to socio-demographic characteristics, population density, resource availability and accessibility, (3) it cap- tures the value of the actual flow rather than the potential stock, and (4) it is generic and can therefore be up-scaled across non-surveyed areas. We illustrate the empirical application of this approach in an analysis of charcoal production in the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania, using a dataset comprising over 1100 obser- vations from 45 villages. The total flow of charcoal benefits is estimated at USD 14 million per year, providing an important source of income to local households, and supplying around 11% of the charcoal used in Dar es Salaam and other major cities. We discuss the potential and limitations of up-scaling micro-level analysis for NTFP valuation
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    The importance of local forest benefits: economic valuation of Non-Timber forest products in the Eastern Arc Mountains in Tanzania
    (Elsevier, 2013-08) Schaafsma, M; Morse-Jones, S; Posen, P; Swetnam, R.D; Balmford, A; Bateman, I.J; Burgess, N.D; Chamshama, S.A.O; Fisher, B; Freeman, T; Geofrey, V; Green, R.E; Hepelwa, A.S; Hernández-Sirvent, A; Hess, S; Kajembe, G.C; Kayharara, G; Kilonzo, M; Kulindwa, K; Lund, J.F; Madoffe, S.S; Mbwambo, L; Meilby, H; Ngaga, Y.M; Theilade, I; Treue, T; van Beukering, P; Vyamana, V.G; Turner, R.K
    Understanding the spatial distribution of the quantity and economic value of Non-Timber Forest Product (NTFP) collection gives insight into the benefits that local communities obtain from forests, and can inform decisions about the selection of forested areas that are eligible for conservation and enforcement of regulations. In this paper we estimate transferable household production functions of NTFP extraction in the Eastern Arc Mountains (EAM) in Tanzania, based on information from seven multi-site datasets related to the behaviour of over 2000 households. The study shows that the total benefit flow of charcoal, firewood, poles and thatch from the EAM to the local population has an estimated value of USD 42 million per year, and provides an important source of additional income for local communities, especially the poorest, who mainly depend on subsistence agriculture. The resulting map of economic values shows that benefits vary highly across space with population density, infrastructure and resource availability. We argue that if further restrictions on forest access to promote conservation are considered, this will require additional policies to prevent a consequent increase in poverty, and an enforced trade- off between conservation and energy supply to rural and urban households.
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    Stand biomass and volume estimation for Miombo Woodlands at Kitulangalo, Morogoro, Tanzania
    (Southern African Forestry Journal, 2004-03) Chamshama, S.A.O; Mugasha, A. G; Zahabu, E
    Tree volume and biomass equations developed for Kitulangalo area in Morogoro, Tanzania ignored small branches and small trees. Consequently, this study was carried out to develop new individual tree volume and biomass equations, and assess current regeneration status, biodiversity and yield of miombo woodlands of the area. Volume and biomass equations based on stump diameter for the estimation of volume and biomass of felled trees were also developed. A total of 30 trees were measured for stump diameter (StD), diameter at breast height (dbh) and total height and felled for the determination of volume and biomass. Different tree stem, branch and total volume and biomass models were then fitted. For the determination of current regeneration status, biodiversity and yield, data were collected from three strata: (a) Forest Reserve managed by the Central Government, (b) Forest Reserve under Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) and (c) General land (free access by the public). In each stratum, temporary concentric circular sample plots were laid out on transects at 150 m intervals for a 1% sampling intensity. Stand variables such as number of stems per ha, basal area, biomass, volume and plant diversity, were computed for each stratum. The study has revealed the presence of average volumes (m3ha-1) and basal areas (m2ha-1) of: 76.02 + 9.14 and 9.13 + 0.78 for the Government forest reserve, 76.03 + 9.34 and 8.95 + 0.73 for SUA forest reserve, and 43.9 + 7.75 and 7.78 + 1.1 for general land forest. The respective biomass values were 43.56 + 7.06, 41.40 + 4.90 and 29.31 + 6.56 t ha-1. Tree species composition and regeneration status revealed that though disturbed, the public land species composition is not different from the other two strata. More studies should be done on the nursing of the abundant regeneration in the disturbed general land. The developed volume and biomass models are recommended to be used for the miombo woodlands at Kitulangalo area especially where small trees (< 8 cm dbh) are involved.
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    Nutrient use efficiency and biomass production of tree species for rotational woodlot systems in semi-arid Morogoro, Tanzania
    (Springer, 2007) Kimaro, Anthony A.; Timmer, Vic R.; Mugasha, Ancelm G.; Chamshama, Shaban A. O.; Kimaro, Deborah A.
    Frequent nutrient removals accompanying wood and crop harvests from rotational woodlot systems may contribute to declining site productivity and sustainability because of soil nutrient depletion. However, selecting for nutrient-efficient tree species may well sustain productivity under this system. To test this hypothesis, a randomized complete block experiment was adopted to assess effects of five tree species on soil nutrients status, nutrient use efficiency and wood yield in semi-arid Tanzania. After 5years rotation, top soils under Gliricidia sepium (Jaqua), Acacia polyacantha Willd. and Acacia mangium Willd. were the most fertile with soil organic carbon and exchangeable cation status raised close to those in natural Miombo systems. Soil inorganic N and extractable P levels reached sufficiency levels for subsequent maize culture. Wood productivity in tree fallows averaged three times higher than that of Miombo woodlands indicating the high potential of the woodlot system to supply fuelwood, and consequently relieve harvesting pressures on the natural forests. Acacia crassicarpa A. Cunn. ex Benth. produced the most wood (51Mgha−1) at low nutrient “costs” presumably due to high nutrient use efficiency. Wood yield of this species was 42 and 120% greater than that of A. polyacantha and A. nilotica, respectively, but contained comparatively less nutrients (42–60% less for P, K, and Ca). Gliricidia sepium and A. polyacantha returned the largest amount of nutrients through slash at harvests. Of all test species, A. crassicarpa exhibited the most promise to sustain wood production under rotational woodlot systems due to relatively high productivity and low nutrient export at harvest.
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    Growth and yield of maize alley cropped with Leucaena leucocephala and Faidherbia albida in Morogoro, Tanzania
    (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998) CHAMSHAMA, S. A. O.; MUGASHA, A. G.; KLØVSTAD, A.; HAVERAAEN, O.; MALIONDO, S. M. S.
    This study examined the effect of alley cropping of Leucaena leucocephala and Faidherbia albida on wood biomass, maize grain yield and soil nitrogen status. The treatments were: trees planted alone at 1 × 5 m spacing; trees intercropped with maize and a sole maize crop. Mulch biomass averaged 6.18 and 0.97 t ha−1 for L. leucocephala and F. albida, respectively. Corresponding wood production was 1.71 and 1.11 t ha−1. Both total N and inorganic N (NO − 3 –N plus + 4 –N) were higher under F. albida and lowest under L. leucocephala. Similarly, foliar N concentration in maize was higher in plots intercropped with F. albida and least in L. leucocephala intercropping. Maize grain yield was little affected by the tree intercrop as competition for resources was reduced through periodic pruning and clean weeding. There was no gain in maize grain yield due to the presence of L. leucocephala and F. albida. These results suggest that alley cropping in Gario is justified for wood production but not for increasing maize grain yield.
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    Solid biofuels options and sustainability: TATEDO experience
    (Tanzania Forestry Research Institute (TAFORI) and Tanzania Forest Fund (TaFF), 2018) Sawe, E.N; Swai, M.E
    Biomass energy (firewood and charcoal) are the main source of energy in Tanzania due to poverty, affordability and unavailability of alternatives. Biomass energy accounts for 90% of the overall energy consumption. The projections indicate that the contribution of solid biofuels will decrease, but the total use will increase during the coming decades due to population increase. Efficiencies of production and use of solid biofuels are usually low, with serious negative consequences. Charcoal demand has doubled over the past ten years as a result of rapid urbanization and high relative prices of or scarcity of energy substitutes, the projections show that the demand for charcoal, without appropriate interventions, will double by 2030, from approximately 2.3 million tons in 2012. The national biomass energy vision is to ensure that Tanzania and her people benefit from sustainable biomass energy management for sustainable development. In the efforts of enabling access to sustainable energy, TaTEDO has been promoting efficient cooking stoves and sustainable charcoal production. This paper discusses various alternative kiln technologies which were developed by TaTEDO for efficient use of biomass energy. The commonly used stoves (from the less to the most efficient) are provided. Various interventions for sustainable charcoal production are given. Among the recommendations provided for giving and maintaining biofuel options and sustainability include; improved resource management, improved regulations and governance and designing an enabling framework, enhanced affordability, and improved awareness on cooking technologies
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    Addressing pest and disease challenges in the national forest plantations: lessons learned from the National Forest Health Forum
    (Tanzania Forestry Research Institute (TAFORI) and Tanzania Forest Fund (TaFF), 2018) Petro, R; Ndomba, O.A; Bakengesa, S; Chamshama, S.A.O; Chidege, M.
    This paper presents the results of the work carried out by the National Forest Health Forum (NFHF), which covered five National Forest Plantations: Mbizi (Sumbawanga), Meru/Usa (Kilimanjaro), Meru (Arusha), Shume (Tanga) and Sao Hill (Iringa) for the period of five years (May, 2012 - July, 2017). The problems addressed are diseases caused by pathogens and those caused by inadequacies of various requirements from the soils. Many of the diseases have been soil-borne which gave rise to foliar symptoms, with Armillaria root rot being in the lead. Occasionally, the ravage by insect pests was encountered at Sao Hill and Meru Forest Plantations. These problems threaten the productivity of the plantations against the objective for the plantations of supporting the much needed industrialization process. To a large extent, these problems which were recorded in the visited plantations were noted to be accelerated by two phenomena namely; climate change and taungya. Therefore, this paper describes the problems addressed in the plantations; the steps adopted in addressing them, key findings and recommendations for achieving better plantations.
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    Financing forestry research mechanism: Tanzania Forest Fund
    (Tanzania Forestry Research Institute (TAFORI) and Tanzania Forest Fund (TaFF), 2018) Msuya, T; Paulo, T; Mwakilla, E
    Tanzania Forest Fund (TaFF) is a Public Conservation Trust Fund which was established under sections 79 to 83 of the Forest Act No. 14 of 2002. It is a mechanism of providing long term, reliable, and sustainable financial support to enhance sustainable forest management in Tanzania mainland. The Fund is an important instrument for financing forestry research particularly the National Forestry Research Master plan II (NAFORM II) of 2011 to 2020. TaFF has seven functions two functions of which provide a window for financing forestry research namely; (i) promotion and funding of research into forestry, and (ii) the promotion of such other activities of a similar nature to those set out in Section 80 of the Forest Act No. 14 of 2002. TaFF is obliged to fund forestry research through her Strategic Objective titled “Applied and adaptive research on management of forest resources supported”. From July 2011 to March 2018, TaFF spent Tanzania Shillings (TZS) 720.9 million to support 36 research projects of which 69% are still being implemented. The research projects supported by TaFF have been/are being implemented by research and training institutions, government agencies and non-governmental organizations. In addition, TaFF has spent TZS 500 million for supporting special projects which are being implemented by government institutions including Tanzania Forestry Research Institute (TAFORI). The Fund has also spent TZS 136.2 million to support the dissemination of forestry research findings. The support to infrastructure development, equipment and facilities, is another window of supporting and promoting forestry research in Tanzania mainland. It can be concluded that, TaFF has spent substantial amount of money for financing forestry research. TaFF will continue financing forestry research; and finally, the commitment for spending research funds for the intended purposes is paramount
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    Challenges of producing quality tree seeds to support afforestation in Tanzania
    (Tanzania Forestry Research Institute (TAFORI) and Tanzania Forest Fund (TaFF), 2018) Msanga, H.P; Masunga, E.W; Andrew, S.M; Fandey, F.H
    There is an increase of awareness among local communities, NGOs, the private sector and government agencies on the importance of afforestation in fostering the supply of important environmental goods and services. However, in order to sustain the afforestation initiatives and realize the anticipated impacts, quality seed production is critical. The history of tree seed production in Tanzania started as early as the 1902. In the 1970’s, the Government launched the national tree planting campaigns which led to the establishment of the National Tree Seed Programme (NTSP) in 1989. Following Government reforms, NTSP was transformed to Tanzania Tree Seed Agency (TTSA) in 2003. TTSA mandate is to produce and market high quality tree seed and other propagating materials. Currently, there is an increasing demand for quality tree seed for afforestation both locally and internationally. This paper identifies the challenges facing the production of quality tree seeds such as seed quality, low investments in tree seed industry, inadequate policy, and specific law to regulate and control tree seed quality, human resource limitations, and inadequate institutional integration with related expertise, research and climate change. Others issues include, problems of seed dormancy for some species, inadequate data on individual seed protocol for storage and germination. In addressing these challenges, the paper recommends investment in establishing as many seed orchards as possible, integrating institutions with related discipline at each node to create a multiplier effect on abundance, quality, and distribution as well as financing the tree seed industry, support training and recognition of the tree seed industry through policy and legal mechanisms
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    Tafori experience in solving forest deforestation and degradation challenges in Tanzania
    (Tanzania Forestry Research Institute (TAFORI) and Tanzania Forest Fund (TaFF), 2018) Maduka, M.S; Laswai, F.F; Njongomi, E.E
    Deforestation and forest degradation in Tanzania are the challenges noting deforestation rate of about 500,000 ha per year. Tanzania Forestry Research Institute (TAFORI) has gained vast experiences in solving deforestation and forest degradation. Experiences gained are from enhancing natural regeneration of degraded forests and woodlands, introduction and screening andmultiplication of Eucalyptus hybrid clones, artificial propagation of indigenous trees (medicinal, timber and fruit trees), including application of tissue culture technology, enhancing availability of planting materials through the establishment of seed orchards and gene conservation stands. In meeting charcoal demands and sustainable utilization of available trees resources, efficient charcoal-making kiln (Casamance) has been introduced and disseminated through outreach programme. Regeneration techniques for 10 dominant tree species in Miombo woodlands of Tabora and three tree species within the Eastern Arc Mountains have been developed. Over 500,000 ha of Ngitilis and 20 tree species have been restored in Mwanza and Shinyanga regions. Through Tree Biotechnology Programme, improved Eucalyptus hybrid clones have been introduced and adopted by stakeholders. Morever, the new focus towards application of tissue culture technology will widen the range of benefits including mass seedlings production. Several publications on research findings and dissemination materials in user-friendly languages have been made and distributed to stakeholders. More studies, identification of new technologies and innovations are required to meet the growing demands of wood.
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    Commercial forestry development in Tanzania: progress with investments, innovations and institutions supporting tree improvement, input supply and advisory services
    (Tanzania Forestry Research Institute (TAFORI) and Tanzania Forest Fund (TaFF), 2018) Milledge, S; Singo, I.; Sangalali, E
    Commercial forestry is a growing industry in Tanzania, and is central to several major development sectors including construction and rural electrification, and is among the measures which are needed to combat forest loss and address the growing wood supply deficit. The Forestry Development Trust (FDT) is an independent, Tanzanian legal entity which was established in 2013 to help transform the commercial forestry sector by making it more competitive, inclusive and resilient. This paper draws together findings from various lines of FDT’s work with partners over the past two years including: (i) an industry outlook for plantation resources and wood markets; (ii) performance measurement of tree improvement genetic trials; (iii) tree grower practices adoption surveys in the Southern Highlands; and (iv) private sector inputs to the revision of the National Forest Policy. Collectively, this work highlights three messages which are relevant to the transformation of the sector. Firstly, the private sector plays a fundamental and growing role in commercial forestry (including tree growers, investors, SMEs and service providers). This requires an enabling policy environment that recognises private roles, addresses key constraints, and stimulates investment and innovation. Secondly, the power of collaboration by public and private actors in technical innovations such as tree improvement research is immense, as it allows for leverage and sharing of technical and financial resources. Ensuring coordinated and sustainably-funded tree breeding is a key challenge to the sector. Thirdly, the sustainability of commercial forestry development and national tree planting initiatives depend on explicit recognition of economic and technical considerations including grower incentives, financial viability, site-species selection, and the quality of inputs and practices.
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    Rotation age and fibre length of pinus patula at sao hill forest plantation, Tanzania
    (Tanzania Forestry Research Institute (TAFORI) and Tanzania Forest Fund (TaFF), 2018) Laswai, F; Malimbwi, R.E; Chamshama, S.A.O; Abdallah, J.M; Balama, C.; Pima, N.E; Mugasha, W.A; Mauya, E
    This study determined the rotation age of Pinus patula grown at Sao Hill forest plantation based on growth, yield, wood properties, and economic analysis. Previous Technical Orders on rotation age were not based on these considerations. Growth, yield, wood properties, revenue, and management costs data were collected and analysed using standard procedures. The results indicate that there were fewer and lighter prunings and thinnings than specified in the respective schedules. Many trees were found to have breast height diameter below 40 cm in all compartments except one. Growth and yield results showed that for P. patula grown at Sao Hill, the equity point of Mean Annual Increment (MAI) and Current Annual Increment (CAI) were achieved at between 16 and 17 years with the maximum MAI being maintained until about 20 years. Basic density and mechanical properties showed that strong wood was obtained when trees were 16 years and above and these properties increased with age. The mean fibre length for 5 - 25 years old P. patula was found to range from 2.29 to 3.53 mm and increased with age. Fibre lengths from 11 years and above exceed the minimum (3 mm) considered suitable for pulp and paper production. Based on economic analysis, net present value (NPV) was attained at between 16 and 17 years. Based on considerations of growth and yield, wood properties and economics of rotation age; P. patula from Sao Hill is recommended to be harvested at 18 years for timber and 11 years for pulp and paper production.
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    Financing forestry research mechanism: Tanzania commission for science and technology experience
    (Tanzania Forestry Research Institute (TAFORI) and Tanzania Forest Fund (TaFF), 2018) Kindeketa, W.J.
    Tanzania is one of the highest biodiversity in the world, containing a significant number of endemic and threatened plant, mammal, bird, reptile, frog, butterfly, snail, and millipede species. Tanzania has set aside about 40% of her area for conservation, including total land mass and marine area, hence categorized as a ‘mega-diversity’ nation. There are about four identified financing sources of forestry research sector in Tanzania, including Government budgetary allocations, retained income from forest revenues, grants from Tanzania Government and development partners, and private financing. The Tanzania Commission for Science and Technology (COSTECH) as one of the financing sources for Research and Development is an apex body for the coordination, promotion, and popularization of Science and Technology in Tanzania. COSTECH supports Research and Development activities through the National Fund for the Advancement of Science and Technology (NFAST) in terms of grants and awards. The funding from the NFAST specifically aims at: supporting research with special emphasis in the national priority areas; supporting development and transfer of appropriate technologies; supporting capacity building in Research and Development and Science and Technology Institution’s (STIs) activities; supporting organization of and/or attendance to scientific fora and information dissemination through publications; promoting innovativeness and inventiveness through the provision of awards; commissioning individuals, groups of individuals, institutions or groups of institutions to undertake research or studies in special areas identified by the Commission; and supporting any other activities whose objectives would be the promotion of STIs for national development.
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    Vailability of forest products to support industries in Tanzania: challenges and opportunities
    (Tanzania Forestry Research Institute (TAFORI) and Tanzania Forest Fund (TaFF), 2018) Kilongo, M
    Primary forest based industries in the country play a major role in the conversion of forest products into various end uses. The current study was conducted to assess demand and supply of raw materials, the means of allocating raw materials, the challenges and opportunities of the availability and production of raw materials for forest industries. The study was conducted in Tanzania mainland covering seven zones and 23 forest plantations under TFS jurisdiction. Structured questionnaire were used for data collection. The data were then coded, compiled, and analysed using SPSS and Ms excel. The results indicate that primary wood based industries were either active (44%) or inactive (45%) with small proportions (11%) being dormant and their actual installed, annual wood demand and utilized capacities were 2,541,918 m3 , 1,559,332 m3 and 554,752 m3 respectively. The finding revealed that the total annual wood allocated for all primary wood based industries increases yearly due to the growing market demand of wood for construction purpose or other development activities. The finding revealed further that the increasing demand of industrial round wood created a lot of challenges that affected day-to-day operations. Example of such challenges include political leaders banning harvesting of forest products. Finally, there is existing potential for government, individual, private or community for expanding areas for establishment of new forest plantations in order to increase supply of raw wood material for wood based industries.
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    Contribution of smallholder farmers to forest raw materials base in Tanzania
    (Tanzania Forestry Research Institute (TAFORI) and Tanzania Forest Fund (TaFF), 2018) Hawkes, M. D; Sumari, S.
    Tanzania’s forest sector has unrealized opportunities of contributing to socio-economic development and carbon sequestration. Collectively, smallholder tree growers are becoming the most significant suppliers to the industry. This paper provides a concise account of investment opportunities in the Tanzanian forestry sector. It analyses demand, assesses supply, considers industrial capacity and infrastructure. It identifies six potential forestry clusters and discusses investment opportunities. Mafinga cluster holds massive but dispersed private smallholder plantation resources, in addition to significant plantation areas under the government and large companies. There is an opportunity for the establishment of 30,000 ha more of eucalyptus plantations for veneer production. In addition, investments in the utility pole treatment, eucalyptus sawmilling, charcoal production, and eucalyptus veneer making will be viable. Njombe cluster also holds massive but dispersed private smallholder plantation resources, in addition to significant company plantations. There is an opportunity for investment in 263,000 m3 per year in pine sawmilling capacity, in addition to smaller investments in utility pole treatment, veneer production, and charcoal production, among others. The dispersed nature and small scale of most individual smallholder plantations, poor road access and limited electrification are the challenges limiting utilisation of smallholder resources. Infrastructure is however improving, and in the meantime, there are opportunities of building sustainable local processing enterprises in vertical integration with nearby tree growers. The future of the sector will largely depend on how smallholders are nurtured