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    The impact of rural, financing on the performance of small and medium enterprises: a case of Mufindi community bank
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2007) Godwin, Godfrey
    The importance of small and medium enterprises sector has necessitated to the great emphasis on small and medium enterprises financing for the development of the sector. However, with the current small and medium finance institution in Tanzania, there is no sufficient documentation of the extent and strength of small and medium enterprises performance as a result of accessing credit from MFIs. The study thus aimed at evaluating the performance of SMEs a result of provision of credit from MuCoBa in Mufindi. Primary data were collected using questionnaires from selected samples of 45 small and medium respondents. Borrowers and institution respondent were interviewed f. Secondary data were collected from the university of Sokoine libraries and MuCoBa. Descriptive statistic (means, percentages, frequencies) were major tools employed in data analysis. Small and medium enterprises financing was confirmed to play a vital role in boosting sales revenues, Enterprises with access to credit employed significantly more laborers than those without credit. Many borrowers respondent (68.9 %) reported to acquire more assets than non­ borrowers (13.3 %). Also micro enterprises with credit have higher ability to meet their basic needs and other household’s expenses like paying school fees, meeting medical etc. Hence, SMEs financing has a major role for starting and sustainable growth of profitable enterprises for the development of SME sector. The study recommended that proper measures such as creation of favorable environment for SME sector, conducting of feasibility study to SMEs before issuing credit to SMEs, extending credit for business start­ up, provision of grace period to SMEs after Ioan disbursement, extension of repayment period, provision of entrepreneurship skills and business training for SMEs operators and increasing the size of the base loan.
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    Agricultural policy analysis studies in Tanzania: a historical and thematic perspective with implications on future policy research for crop production and marketing
    (Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2016) Isinika, A. C.; Mibavu, G. M.; VanSickle, J. J.
    This paper reviews studies which have addressed agricultural policy research in relation to Tanzania during and after economic structural adjustment, with some cross reference for studies within Africa and globally. The studies are reviewed to cover: factor markets; product markets; and macro-economic management in relation to impacts on agriculture performance. The review establishes that in the factor markets more studies have been done to address productivity improving inputs, especially inorganic fertilizer compared to other inputs such as financing and credit for agriculture. Based on the findings, further areas for future research are proposed. Five sub-themes are presented: subsidy, returns to investment, land markets, trade, and inter-sectoral linkages. The study concludes by observing that despite all the studies, there is little evidence that policymaking in Tanzania is informed by policy research. Alternatively stated, policy makers do not seek guidance from research to make decisions. The review also establishes that most of local researchers use analytical methods which have limited capacity to provide robust policy recommendations that are backed by clear analytical rigour. Capacity building of young professionals is therefore recommended to improve their competence to become agricultural policy analysts with impact on agricultural policy processes.
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    Consumer preferences for quality characteristics along the cowpea value chain in Nigeria, Ghana and Mali
    (Wiley InterScience, 2009) Mishili, Fulgence Joseph; Fulton, Joan; Shehu, Musa; Kushwaha, Saket; Marfo, Kofi; Jamal, Mustafa; Kergna, Alpha; Lowenberg-DeBoer, J.
    The production and trade of cowpea is a growing business in West Africa. But a better understanding of consumer preferences is essential to market development. The objective of the study was to determine the impact of cowpea grain quality characteristics on market price. The data for the study were collected from markets in Nigeria, Ghana, and Mali. Hedonic pricing methods provide a statistical estimate of premiums and discounts. The results indicated that cowpea consumers in Ghana, Mali, and Nigeria are willing to pay a premium for large cowpea grains. Bruchid damage is not statistically significant in any market. The impact of price on other cowpea quality characteristics such as skin color and texture and eye color vary locally. Implications for development of the cowpea value chain are as follows: (a) researchers should identify cost-effective ways to increase cowpea grain size because larger grain are preferred and (b) serving local markets requires a portfolio of grain skin and eye color and skin texture combinations. [EconLit citations: Q130]. r 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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    Factors influencing land allocation decisions to food crops - trees production in Mufindi, Tanzania:A fractional multinomial logit approach (fmnl)
    (Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2023) Ng’elenge, H; Damas, P
    Understanding of factors influencing land allocation decisions to food crops - trees production is vital for improving the welfare gain from land allocation decisions smallholder farmers make. This article aimed to investigate the determinants of land allocation decisions by smallholder farmers between food crops - tree production in selected villages in the Mufindi District in Tanzania. The study adopted a cross-sectional research design approach to collect data. The target population was 4896 farm households, from which a total of 413 households were randomly selected to constitute a sample size from which primary data were collected. Data from this study were analyzed quantitatively using the fractional Multinomial Logit model (FMNL). Variables included in FMNL were sex, age, education, household size, labor, and land size, access to market information, and awareness to land use policy. Major findings show that sex, household size, land size, awareness of land use policy, access to market information, and labor were influencing land allocation decisions more to tree farming than food crops. The study suggests that the government should create awareness among farmers through educational programs on, land use policy and market information, labor and land use allocation for improved farmers’ welfare.
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    Economic viability of system of rice intensification (sri) technology in Morogoro, region, Tanzania
    (Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2023) Mkubya, R.W; Damas, P; Mahoo, H.F
    The objective of this study is to analyze the benefits and costs of the system of rice intensification in the Morogoro Region, Tanzania. The cost-benefit analysis theory was used in this study. Data were collected by using a questionnaire and checklists after a preliminary survey that aimed at familiarizing the researcher with the study area and pre-test the questionnaire to gauge the relevance of the questions and their comprehensiveness. The study adopted a multistage sampling method. The sample size of 384 farmers was randomly selected. The viability of each production method (SRI and Conventional) was estimated using the Cost-Benefit Analysis. Overall, the results of the comparison of economic viability between SRI and Conventional method projects indicated that the former (SRI) was more profitable and viable than the latter (Conventional Method) at discount rates (Interest rates) equal to or less than 12% respectively. In terms of both NPVs and BCRs interest rates often decrease, making borrowing money less expensive. However, the increase in NPV revealed that the System of Rice Intensification was more profitable than the conventional method of rice production. The sensitivity analyses, of the NPVs for the SRI and Conventional Method projects, respectively, were negative at discount rates of more than 54.17749% and 32.10396%, indicating that the projects were not financially feasible at rates higher than these, but when measured in terms of IRR, SRI outperformed the conventional technique. In general, the empirical findings showed that the System of Rice Intensification produces rice at a higher profit than the conventional method. Therefore, it is important to encourage rice farmers to use the system of Rice Intensification
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    Editorial: achieving nutrition security in Tanzania by improving production, education and economics: methods, tools and applications
    (Frontiers, 2022-09-20) Hoffmann, Harry Konrad; Kinabo, Joyce Ludovick; Sieber, Stefan; Stuetz, Wolfgang; Bonatti, Michelle; Mbwana, Hadijah Ally; Uckert, Götz Bernhard; Matavel, Custodio Efraim; Hafner, Johannes Michael; Löhr, Katharina; Rybak, Constance
    Globally, the number of people unable to afford a healthy diet rose by 112 million to almost 3.1 billion, reflecting the impacts of rising consumer food prices during the pandemic (1). In this context, food security and nutrition is increasingly highlighted as a priority among both scientists (2) and political decision makers (3). On the African continent, this topic is of particular importance as the number of individuals affected by undernourishment remained on a high level throughout the 2010s, and since 2019 are again rising (Figure 1)– the war in Ukraine will most likely cause even greater problems (4). In 2021, hunger affected 278 million people in Africa. Situated in one of the globally most affected regions, achieving food security and nutrition is already a substantial challenge in Tanzania, with the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (5) reporting that, between 2014 and 2020, the overall prevalence of moderate or severe food insecurity in the total population has affected roughly 55-56% of the overall population. However, these already severe numbers do not display the food security situation in 2022 adequately because the devastating effects of the Covid-19 pandemic (6) and the subsequent spikes in global food prices since the 24th of February 2022 are not included. The latter is especially worrying as more than 65% of imported wheat in Tanzania derives from Russia (ca. 50%) or Ukraine (ca. 15%) (7). Furthermore, prices for agricultural inputs, like fertilizers and pesticides, are also increasing significantly, given that these are mainly imported from Russia. The knock-on effects will likewise worsen the food security situation in the near future. Thus, the topic of this special issue is even more important than it was when it was launched, especially as Tanzania is likely to be among the 10 largest countries globally in 2100 (8) and, simultaneously, climate change will hit East Africa (9) including Tanzania (10) particularly hard. The included set of papers aim to address the overall challenge of food insecurity from different disciplinary angles and on different analytical levels, thus holistically displaying the magnitude of the problem and showcasing potential pathways for solving some aspects of the crisis.
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    Total economic values of tourist hunting blocks in Tanzania
    (BT International, 2023) Kadigi, Reuben M. J.; Nkuwi, Imani R.; Ligate, Fredrick A.; Kija, Hamza; Musamba, Emmanuel B.
    This chapter is based on the findings of a study that was conducted in 12 tourist hunting blocks (HBs) in Tanzania. The aim of the study was to evaluate the total economic values (TEV) of the HBs to inform the decision of auctioning to potential hunting companies and sustainable utilization and conservation of the blocks. For each of the 12 HBs, the study estimated the TEV and its five individual components namely; the direct use values (DUV), indirect use values (IUV), option/quasi-option values (OV), existence values, as well as, the bequest values (BV). The values were estimated using the Analytic Multicriteria Valuation Method (AMUVAM). The TEV and its components were estimated using a time horizon of 10 years (the mean tenure for a winning hunting company). The results show that the average TEV of HBs was USD 93,981,422 with the minimum and maximum TEV amounting to USD 6,215,588 to USD 653,470,695 per hunting block respectively. Of the five components of TEV, the bequest values (BV) constituted the largest proportion (about 50% of TEV), followed by the existence values (EV) (19%), option/quasi-option values (OV) (12%), and indirect use values (IUV) (10%). The direct use values or DUV (i.e. the values of hunting and photographic tourism) constituted only 1% of TEV. The EV of HBs ranged from USD 632,210 to the maximum of USD 125,147,285 and the average was USD 17,625,305. The cultural heritage values (CHV) constituted the largest component of EV (about 50%), followed by the aesthetic enjoyment values (AEV) (27%), and biodiversity conservation values (BDV) (23%). The study emphasises the importance of using a thorough understanding of human values to inform decisions about how to devote ecosystems, like HBs, to both direct and indirect purposes. We also advocate enhancing the skills of the personnel responsible for managing and allocating the use of these ecosystems so they can conduct economic assessments of ecosystems using both basic and sophisticated analytical tools, such as geographic information systems (GIS), relational databases, and globally accessible websites-based tools like InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Environmental Services and Tradeoffs), ARIES (Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), and Costing Nature.
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    Mapping value chains for nutrient-dense foods in Tanzania
    (Institute of Development Studies, 2014-06) Temu, Anna; Waized, Betty; Ndyetabula, Daniel; Robinson, Ewan; Humphrey, John; Henson, Spencer
    This report details the findings of an analysis of value chains for several nutrient-dense foods in Tanzania. It rapidly assesses the potential of ten commodities to contribute to reducing undernutrition and identifies three with particularly high potential. It then systematically examines issues at the various stages of these value chains, in order to identify barriers that inhibit the extent to which the product is likely to mitigate micronutrient undernutrition. The report recommends options for development agencies, governments, public–private partnerships and other development actors seeking to strengthen the linkage between agricultural activities and nutrition outcomes. It is accompanied by two other reports on Tanzania: a case study of a particular food processing business and an analysis of policy options. Chronic undernutrition is a critical problem in Tanzania, with alarmingly high rates of stunting and micronutrient deficiencies leading to cumulative losses of US$3.7bn over five years according to one estimate. Particular problems include low consumption of iron-rich foods by women, poor infant feeding practices and widespread use of inadequate complementary foods. Food-based approaches, especially those that deliver key micronutrients to the ‘1,000 days group’, appear to have a key role in reducing rates of undernutrition in the country. An expert stakeholders’ workshop was convened to rapidly review experiences with ten commodities considered to have potential for nutrition. Of these, three were chosen for more in-depth study: cowpea, orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) and complementary foods. The report provides an overview of these three value chains. Considerable numbers of businesses, especially small enterprises, are involved, particularly at the stages of food processing and retail. The report maps the value chains for these focal products, concentrating on whether they meet five key criteria necessary for foods to be able to mitigate micronutrient undernutrition: availability, affordability, acceptability, nutritional quality, and effective signalling of this quality to purchasers. The report then examines issues at each stage of the value chains for the focal products: production, storage/transport, processing and distribution/retail. It identifies key barriers facing these foods and assesses a set of potential responses to the barriers. The main findings are as follows: Cowpeas are primarily a subsistence crop, although in some areas they are sold and eaten as a protein source or snack food. Cowpeas have the advantage of being a very low-cost source of protein, iron and folates. Further, there is potential to leverage consumers’ familiarity with other types of pulses to increase consumption. Yet important barriers remain: demand is low and the crop is still not widespread in commercial markets. It has largely been neglected by public agricultural support programmes. Cowpea is also highly susceptible to post-harvest losses; traders use dangerous chemicals to prevent pest damage, but this creates health risks for consumers. To address these problems, interventions can seek to promote the use of low-cost and safe storage techniques. Social marketing campaigns can also increase awareness of the benefits of eating cowpeas and create greater consumer demand. Support can also be provided to foster business models that deliver new, nutrient- dense cowpea foods to a wide group of consumers. Orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) is exceptionally rich in vitamin A and can be produced at low cost in many regions of Tanzania. It is well suited for use as a complementary food for young children. However, at present, both producers and consumers prefer white-fleshed varieties of sweet potato – which contain few micronutrients – to the orange varieties. Furthermore, markets for OFSP are poorly developed and availability is low. Several donor-funded initiatives have aimed to increase production of improved varieties of OFSP, but they have not addressed marketing and demand issues. Future interventions should support new products in order to make OFSP appeal to consumer tastes, while social 4marketing should be used to increase consumer awareness and to encourage traders to promote and market OFSP to their customers. Finally, supporting processors to scale up new products could make OFSP more acceptable to urban consumers. The orange colour of OFSP tubers is a key advantage for this crop: it allows consumers to easily distinguish it from white varieties, creating a potential for businesses to specialise in OFSP. The key to strengthening OFSP is to increase consumer demand through social marketing and by working with traders and retailers. Complementary food products. Complementary foods made from mixes of cereals and legumes already have a positive impact on nutrition in Tanzania. There is robust demand and a large number of enterprises involved in making these products. However, many do not contain sufficient nutrients to support infant growth and development, and products can be contaminated with pathogens or aflatoxins. Meanwhile larger firms’ products are not affordable for poor consumers. Interventions need to address market constraints so that businesses can sell safe and nutritionally adequate products at an affordable price. Policy actors can choose from a number of approaches; in-depth assessments will be needed to evaluate the risks and benefits of each. If policymakers aim to introduce quality controls in the complementary food market, they will need to organise the small enterprises into clusters so that it is easier to engage with and monitor them. This could be accompanied by a voluntary certification system that would distinguish nutritionally adequate products from those that are not. However, experience in Tanzania and elsewhere indicates that both of these interventions require substantial resources and long-term support, as well as entailing considerable uncertainty. Alternative options include procurement and distribution funded by donors or government, which can circumvent some of the key constraints faced by private markets while also targeting the most vulnerable groups. Public distribution, however, requires long-term funding commitments. A final option is to use behaviour change communications to promote home fortification using locally available ingredients. This strategy may be lower risk but does not address supply constraints. Finally, the report highlights a set of overarching constraints that inhibit markets for nutrient- dense foods more broadly. These issues include low public nutrition awareness and demand, the difficulty of distributing to poor populations, the absence of mechanisms to signal nutritional quality, and the cost of working with value chains made up of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). These challenges, and policy options for addressing them, are examined in more detail in the accompanying policy report.
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    Promoting biofortified crops for nutrition: lessons from orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) in Tanzania
    (Institute of Development Studies, 2015-04) Waized, Betty; Ndyetabula, Daniel; Temu, Anna; Robinson, Ewan; Henson, Spencer
    This case study examines the outcomes of interventions in Tanzania that have promoted the production and consumption of orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) – a biofortified crop – with the objective of reducing vitamin A deficiencies. The report contributes to policy efforts to promote nutrition-sensitive agriculture by providing lessons for the introduction of biofortified crops in Tanzania and elsewhere. The case study is particularly instructive because OFSP has been a flagship of biofortification efforts, and because Tanzania appeared to have high potential for uptake of the crop. The country is a major producer of sweet potato, although the vast majority of production is of the nutrient-poor white-fleshed varieties (WFSP). Sweet potato is an important food security crop for small farming households, particularly in Tanzania’s Lake Zone. The crop has the advantage of requiring little land and few inputs, and can be stored on-farm for several months. The crop also has commercial value, and white-fleshed varieties are available in urban markets throughout the year. Donor-funded initiatives have played a central role in developing all stages of the OFSP value chain, with a particular focus on breeding new varieties that appeal to the preferences of both producers and consumers. Development projects have also supported the dissemination of planting materials and funded public awareness campaigns. However, information collected for this case study suggests that, so far, interventions have not achieved widespread uptake of OFSP. Only a small minority of farming households in intervention districts grow OFSP. Commercial farmers who supplied OFSP planting materials to project distribution systems have found that, after project funding ended, the local market was not viable, and have ceased production. Meanwhile, awareness of and demand for the crop among consumers have been very limited; one survey conducted in an intervention district found that only 2 per cent of households consumed OFSP. Traders and food processors report that there is little demand, and dealing with the crop is not profitable. This state is perhaps unsurprising given that the introduction of OFSP is still relatively recent, that project efforts have been relatively scattered and uncoordinated, and that there has been little focus on commercially viable value chains. Yet the challenges encountered in Tanzania provide important lessons for other agriculture-nutrition initiatives. A first lesson is that the successful introduction of a biofortified crop requires the development of support systems at different stages of the value chain, including seed, marketing and quality assurance systems. In the case of OFSP, interventions should design publicly funded distribution of planting materials in order to foster parallel commercial systems at the same time. Whether commercial systems will provide access for vulnerable rural households requires further assessment; there may be a need for ongoing targeted subsidy. A second lesson is that achieving uptake of a nutrient-rich crop may depend on building viable value chains and demand, even if the aim is to encourage consumption by vulnerable households. One reason farmers have not invested in OFSP is that – faced with food insecurity and capital constraints – they prefer crops that can both be used as food or sold for cash. Agriculture-nutrition interventions should develop a more nuanced analysis of the decision-making context facing farming households. Third, the absence of demand is perhaps the key barrier preventing value chain development for OFSP. Yet, without rigorous research on consumer preferences and willingness-to-pay, it is unclear how this situation can be addressed. Funding more detailed consumer studies is therefore an immediate priority. Finally, the case of OFSP highlights the importance of mechanisms that signal nutritional quality to consumers. The distinctive colour of OFSP tubers is a major advantage; it enables the consumer to identify nutritional benefits and aids efforts to market the crop. In contrast, processed products that incorporate OFSP, such as ‘golden bread’, lack this advantage; the orange colour can be easily faked using food additives. This can undermine consumer confidence. If market-based interventions are to generate consumer trust, they must either 3concentrate on crops and foods with a clear signalling advantage, or put in place specific mechanisms to ensure the nutritional quality of end-products. This report concludes that publicly funded programmes need to build commercial opportunities for OFSP if the crop is to achieve widespread uptake and contribute to reductions in vitamin A deficiencies. This will require more strategic and better-coordinated support from donor agencies, government and their partners. Private sector actors will play a key role, but are unlikely to invest until supportive conditions are put in place. Future interventions should aim to create this supportive environment, including by incentivising production of planting materials, developing commercially viable products and funding large- scale public awareness campaigns. Public sector actors need to assess whether commercial planting materials and processed products can be made affordable and accessible to poor and vulnerable populations; delivering nutrient-rich foods to these groups is likely to require some form of public subsidy. This case study suggests that two intervention pathways should be explored simultaneously: (1) public distribution/purchasing and purchasing programmes to deliver planting materials and/or OFSP tubers to the rural poor, and (2) demand creation through awareness and social marketing campaigns, along with product development. Building robust value chains for biofortified crops requires collective efforts from both public and private sector actors. Donors, national government and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) can play a key role in catalysing investment through appropriate public purchasing, increasing public awareness and addressing barriers to acceptability.
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    Impacts of prices and transactions costs on input usage in a liberalizing economy: evidence from Tanzanian coffee growers
    (2004-06-15) Winter-Nelson, Alex; Temu, Anna
    Despite improvements in production incentives, agricultural output in Africa remained sluggish through the 1990s. Low use of purchased inputs may be part of the cause of persistently low productivity in African agriculture. This article analyzes the roles of relative prices and transactions costs in explaining low use of chemical inputs among Tanzanian coffee growers. A sample selection model indicates that output prices exert great influence on input purchases and that both fixed and variable transactions costs affect input use decisions. Travel costs in input and output markets have distinct effects on input usage, implying distinct avenues for interventions to promote more intensive use of agricultural inputs.
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    Market liberalisation, vertical integration and price behaviour in Tanzania’s coffee auction
    (Blackwell Publishers, 2001) Temu, Anna A.; Winter-Nelson, Alex; Garcia, Philip
    Whether market liberalisation can promote agricultural development in Africa depends on how well existing institutions can facilitate trade by private agents. This article assesses the performance of the Tanzania coffee marketing system after liberalisation and the emergence of private, vertically integrated exporters (VIEs). Increasing producer prices, declining marketing margins, and the continued provision of a useful auction for coffee that is delivered by traders who are not VIEs all suggest a degree of success for liberalisation. The presence of VIEs seems to have provided investment to reduce marketing costs, whilst a sufficient number of competing firms has limited non-competitive behaviour in the market for coffee that is traded at the auction by non-VIEs.
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    Economic viability of improved fodder production in Iringa region: comparative cost – benefit analysis of different on-farm treatments
    (Eastern and Southern Africa Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development, 2022-06) Mbwaga, A. I.; Mgeni, C. P.; Kadigi, R. M. J.
    Inadequate fodder production and availability has been a challenge to the livestock farmers in Tanzania. This study assessed the economic viability of fodder production using on-farm treatments at ASAS farm in Iringa region. A Completely Randomized Design was employed to arrange 24 sub-plots (six treatments and four replications) in plots of 10m x 10m dimension making a 100m 2 which is equivalent to 0.025 acres. Sub-plots were spaced each at 0.5m apart from the adjacent plot by a 1m wide path around the plot’s boundaries receiving different treatments of fertilizer. The total area for Rhodes’s grass (Chloris gayana) study was 2835m 2 . The seeds were sown in each plot and fertilizers were applied in Treatment two -Cattle Farm Yard Manure (T2-CFYM), T3 (CFYM)+Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Sulphur, and Zinc (NPSZn), T4 (NPSZn), T5 (NPSZn)+Sulphate of Ammonium (SA) and T6 (NPSZn + Urea) while T1 remained as a control (no fertilizer). Through Microsoft Excel, Cost-Benefit Analysis was done to assess the economic viability of each treatment. The study findings revealed that Treatment 3 and Treatment 6 of the experiments yielded positive Net Present Values (NPVs) of TZS 346 601.3 and TZS 1 324 442; Benefit Cost Ratios (BCRs) of 1.46 and 1.72; and Internal Rates of Return (IRR) of 15% and 16%, respectively. It is concluded that the application of T3 and T6 to the Rhodes grass would improve fodder profitability. It is recommended that with the experiment, large and smallholder farmers may produce enough fodder for themselves and surplus for sale to other livestock keepers.
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    The performance and determinants of rice export in Tanzania: a vector error correction analysis
    (Agricultural Economics Society of Tanzania, 2021) Luhwago, W.; Philip, D.; Kadigi, R.; Kangile, J.R.; Kazuzuru, B.; Hella, J.; Mgeni, C.P.
    The performance of rice export in Tanzania is inadequate despite the country being the leading rice producer in the East African Community (EAC) region. Extensive government interventions in the sector and existence of inward-looking trade policies such as Common External Tariff within EAC region were expected to increase rice exports especially intra-regional trade. The question is why the country is performing poorly in terms of rice exports despite all the efforts and the favourable environment for rice production. To answer this question, the present paper analyses the determinants of rice exports in Tanzania. Specifically, it focuses on examining the influence of price and non-price factors on rice export and assessing the competitiveness of Tanzanian exported rice. The paper uses secondary data collected from government institutions and other international data repositories. Vector Error Correction Model was used to capture the dynamics of rice export in Tanzania while the competitiveness of rice exported is assessed using Revealed Comparative Advantage Model. Results show that, international rice price, quantity produced and average GDP per capita of Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and Burundi are the key determinants for rice export performance in the country. Rice exported is found to be less competitive within EAC regional market. The paper recommends that the government should increase production to improve rice export performance and achieve competitiveness. This will help to meet the export demand of rice to the neighbouring countries and EAC region
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    The Knowledge about the Potential Health Risks of Illegal Bushmeat Activities among Local Communities Adjacent to Western Nyerere National Park, Tanzania
    (Scientific Research Publishing, 2023-01-19) Foya, Yohani R.; Mgeni, Charles P.; Kadigi, Reuben M. J.; Kimaro, Michael H.; Hassan, Shombe N.
    Establishing knowledge of local communities regarding the potential health risks of illegal bushmeat hunting and its related practices is among the essen- tial means to developing effective conservation and public health programs. To reveal the understanding of the local people regarding the potential health risks of bushmeat consumption and handling of wildlife products, we used a semi-structured questionnaire to survey 261 households in eight villages lo- cated adjacent to the western part of Nyerere National Park. Also, we inter- viewed eight key informants, including conservation personnel and veteri- nary officers, in the study area. The proportion of local people who were un- aware that handling of wildlife products and bushmeat consumption were risky behaviours towards acquiring zoonotic diseases was slightly higher (57%) than the proportion of respondents who were aware of the likely risks of zoonotic diseases from the practices. After all, the majority (83%) of local people admitted having come into contact with wildlife products, while over 70% reported having consumed bushmeat. We found that local communities living closer to the park boundaries (<15 km) have a higher likelihood of contacting wildlife products, and that community members who have lived in the area for more than ten years have experienced more contact with wildlife products than immigrants. Moreover, the age of inhabitants and length of stay were found to be the most significant factors in determining the likelih- ood of bushmeat consumption. Most people seemed to prefer bushmeat to domestic meat, arguing that bushmeat is far more flavorful, tender, not tainted with chemicals, and has less fat, making it safer. Our study demon- strated that local communities participate in risky practices without contem- plating the health consequences that could emerge should a zoonotic disease outbreak occur. Among other strategies, we recommended conservation and public health institutions to increase awareness campaigns on the possible health risks of zoonotic diseases associated with wildlife.
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    Evaluating the contribution of complex international research‑for‑development programmes to the sustainable development goals
    (Springer, 2023) Lu‑Gonzales, Arlene; Tsusaka, Takuji W.; Szabo, Sylvia; Kadigi, Reuben M. J.; Foglietti, Camilla Blasi; Park, Seree; Matthews, Zoe
    While evaluation of research-to-policy projects is a fundamental aspect of measur- ing the impact of new knowledge, limited studies have examined evaluation methods in such projects, as well as how the evaluation can generate learning to facilitate the progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This study conducted a systematic literature review and found that the most commonly used methods for SDG contribution evaluation were Analytical Hierarchy Process (40.4%), Fuzzy TOPSIS (13.2%) and ELECTRE and SPADE Methodology (3.5% each). Rank- ing analysis was undertaken to determine priorities among the six “Big Wins” as defined for the UKRI-GCRF Trade Hub Project, as a case, where the ranking was exercised by the project partners across the globe. Results revealed that “nature and social factors” was better considered in international trade agreements as the prior- ity (36.4%) among others. Moreover, among the four “mechanisms” of the project, “knowledge, networks, and connectivity” was ranked as the top priority (56.9%), followed by “capacity building” (28.5%), “metrics, tools and models” (7.2%), and “improving the knowledge base” (4.6%). Mapping and evaluation revealed that the Big Wins of the Trade Hub contributed to ten out of the 17 SDGs. The most ful- filled goals were SDG 12 (Sustainable Consumption and Production), SDG 15 (Life on Land), and SDG 2 (Zero Hunger) in descending order. Furthermore, interaction analysis of the core SDGs revealed both synergy and tradeoff between different out- puts. The research articles reviewed for this paper showed no gold standard frame- work for assessing international development projects against the SDGs. Further research should develop a tool to capture holistic and synergistic contributions of the target outcomes of projects to sustainable development.
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    Trade, GDP value adding activities and income inequality in the East African community
    (PLOS, 2022) Kadigi, Reuben M. J.
    This paper investigates the extent to which the East African Community (EAC) countries have developed economically over time and whether income inequality decreases with eco- nomic growth. The relationship between trade and GDP per capita amongst EAC member countries is evaluated using the World Bank’s meta-data of development indicators and the EAC Secretariat’s data spanning from 2000–2019. Convergence in GDP per capita and inequality are tested using Coefficient of variation (CV) and weighted beta. The results show that agriculture, manufacturing, trade and repair, construction, and transport and storage constituted the top five GDP value adding activities, contributing about 38 percent to total annual GDP. The EAC GDP per capita were diverging in the long run but converging in short to medium terms, implying increase and decrease in the regional income inequality respectively. Agriculture, electricity and gas, transport and storage, real estate activities, public administration, and education were income inequality-increasing sectors. Together with finance and insurance, these sectors were also positively associated with GDP per cap- ita. The exports of EAC member countries were found to be highly concentrated in few sec- tors and destination markets, implying limited diversification of products and markets. In their quest to diversify, these countries should choose the right mixes of export goods and services keeping in view of the prevailing market factors in importing countries, such as, changing taste and demands.
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    Wildlife poaching practices in Tanzania’s Ruaha Landscape
    (AJOL, 2022) Mrosso, H. T.; Kicheleri, R. P.; Kashaigili, J. J.; Munishi, P. K. T.; Kadigi, R. M.; Mgeni, C. P.; Kimaro, M. H.
    Throughout the world, millions of wild species and products are illegally collected, used, traded and exported. Tanzania's Ruaha landscape is considered a critical area for biodiversity, as well as an area where poaching exists. Despite the area being rich in abundance and diversity of wildlife, in- depth analysis of wildlife species hunted most and the methods used by poachers is lacking. This study assessed the most hunted wildlife species, extracted products and uses, and associations between wildlife products, hunting methods, and ethnic groups. Data was collected by utilizing the snowball technique after 123 poachers were given a semi-structured questionnaire in villages near the Ruaha National Park. Among the most hunted species are did-dik, impala, kudu, lion, buffalo, and elephants. Bushmeat, skin, claws, ivory, and fat were the most harvested wildlife products. 60 % of wildlife products used for food and source of income, and the methods used for illegal hunting were domestic dogs, spears, snares, and torches. The findings are critical for understanding the link between the most poached species, products, and methods used in relation to ethnic groups in the Ruaha landscape. Increased anti-poaching patrols and wildlife conservation awareness could help reduce the dependence of local communities on wildlife products.
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    Assessment of variation in marginal productivity value of water in paddy farming systems in times of water stress
    (MDPI, 2022) Sigalla, Onesmo Zakaria; Kadigi, Reuben Mpuya Joseph; Selemani, Juma Rajabu
    Global projections show that increases in agriculture water productivity (AWP) by 30 and 60% in rain-fed and irrigated agriculture, respectively, are required to ensure food security in the period 2000–2025. In sub-Saharan Africa, attempts to understand AWP has seen a lamping of input values which paints an unrealistic picture of AWP. We employed the residual imputation method to isolate the marginal productivity value of water in six paddy farming systems viz. the conventional transplant and flooding system (CTFS), the system of rice intensification (SRI), and the Kilombero Plantation Limited (KPL) mechanized system. Findings showed that AWP for rainfed CTFS is 0.39 kg/m3 or 0.003 US$/m3 , irrigated CTFS (0.30 kg/m3 or 0.002 US$/m3 ), rainfed SRI (0.68 kg/m3 or 0.08 US$/m3 ), irrigated SRI (0.52 kg/m3 or 0.06 US$/m3 ), rainfed KPL (0.33 kg/m3 or 0.05 US$/m3 ), and irrigated KPL (0.68 kg/m3 or 0.11 US$/m3 ). This shows that rainfed systems have good AWP, especially physical ones. We recommend a rollout of rainfed SRI to secure local food security and downstream ecosystem services. In addition, groupings of farmers will assist in optimizing resources, stabilizing markets, and prices for the better economic value of water (US$/m3 ). Adoption of SRI will require intensive demonstration that needs public financing. In addition, revamping the KPL off-taker arrangement with small-holder farmers could also be a good PPP anchor.
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    Illegal wildlife trade: trade flows of wildlife products and facilitation methods in the Ruaha Landscape, Tanzania
    (Scientific Research Publishing, 2022) Mrosso, Hillary Thomas; Kicheleri, Rose Peter; Kashaigili, Japhet Joel; Munishi, Pantaleo; Kadigi, Reuben Mpuya Joseph; Mgeni, Charles Peter; Kimaro, Michael Honorati
    Tanzania’s Ruaha landscape is prominent for its potential wildlife resources, which play a key role in sustaining the economy and livelihoods of the people. However, most of these resources are illegally obtained and traded in differ- ent places within and outside the Ruaha landscape. Due to its illegal nature, most of the important information regarding the trade is poorly documented. Therefore, the current study aimed first, to explore the origin and destina- tion of wildlife products; second, to assess the relationship between hunters and buyers or customers; third, to assess the means used to transport wildlife products; and lastly, to assess who influences people to engage in illegal hunt- ing and trade activities. In addition, we assess the materials used in the ex- change of wildlife products. Semi-structured questionnaires and face-to-face interviews were used to collect information from 123 respondents. Social network analysis was used to indicate the origin and destination of wildlife products. The findings show that 70% of wildlife products originate from the Ruaha National Park and MBOMIPA wildlife management areas, with the remaining 30% originating from villages. The majority of respondents (65%) reported transporting wildlife products by foot and bicycle as the primary modes of transportation. Suppliers of wildlife products are reported to have close and long-term relationships with their customers and traders, with most of whom being friends and relatives. We found most poachers to be influ- enced by their friends and relatives in terms making decision to engage in il- legal wildlife trade. In addition, crops like maize and rice were the most pop- ular products used to exchange with wildlife products in the Ruaha landscape. Therefore, in order to combat illegal trade in wildlife products at the local level, alternative income-generating activities need to be promoted accompa- nied by not only well-funded anti-poaching programmes but also more effec- tive surveillance plans. These should entail the use of advanced techniques and skills, such as wildlife forensics.
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    The effects of trade governance on sugar trade and its landscape of policy practices in Tanzania
    (SAGE, 2022) Kangile, Joseph Rajabu; Mpenda, Zena Theopist; Kadigi, Reuben M. J.; Mgeni, Charles Peter
    Trade governance is important for the efficient implementation of trade policies that support and controls most of the global value chains (GVCs) trade in African countries. Poor trade governance leads to misalignment of trade policies and affects the sustainability of the agricultural commodities supply chains. This study used cross-sectional survey data of 375 randomly selected sugar supply chain actors in Tanzania to evaluate the level of trade governance in Tanzania and ascertain its effects on the sugar trade. Exploratory (factor analysis) and confirmatory (weighted least square regression) models were used for data analysis. The major findings are that governance affects the sugar trade with the magnitude of its effects being felt differently between farmers and traders. It shows further that abrupt trade policy change significantly (p < .05) reduces sugar trade by almost half (47.7%) and lowers the overall level of efforts to invest within the sugar supply chain. Ensuring trade policies are stable and predictable will increase trade by allowing forward contracting and investments. It is also important to create awareness of institutions and organizations managing the sugar supply chain by encouraging transparency in trade policy administration and practices for improving trade governance.