Theses and Dissertations Collection

Permanent URI for this collectionhttp://


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 12 of 12
  • Item
    Remote radiation monitoring system at uranium exploration site in Mkuju River
    (Nelson Mandela African Institution of science and Technology, 2021) Geofrey, Anna M
    Usage of radioactive materials in a number of countless activities has increased rapidly worldwide, thus, increasing Uranium exploration in different countries including Tanzania. As Uranium decays, it emits ionizing radiations, which has health risks associated with it. The major threats occur when ionizing radiations produced during uranium decay exceed their levels. Causing skin bums and acute radiation syndrome, though in the long-term cause cancer and cardiovascular disease, are the substantial health effects to mention a few. Thus real-time and remote monitoring of radiation at uranium mining sites is mandatory to ensure environmental and human safety. Radiation detectors are used to monitor radiation at uranium mining sites by frequently visiting however achieving real-time and remote monitoring is still the challenge. This method is time-consuming and the existing radiation detectors used in Tanzania are exported from developed countries and are expensive. This design science study presents an effective and affordable system for remote monitoring of radiation at uranium mining sites using internet of things (loT) technology. The system used prototype methodology and the radiation detector was programmed by using ESP32 microcontroller board. Which through its inbuilt Wi-Fi it was able to send data to the cloud data storage. The Message Queuing Telemetry'Transport protocol facilitated remote visualization of radiation levels from the cloud storage dashboard and the developed mobile application. The end-users monitored radiation data and received notifications in case of excess radiation through the developed mobile application. The internet of things technology' facilitated the end-users to visualize and monitor radiation levels anytime and anywhere via the internet.
  • Item
    Automating agricultural information and documentation services in Tanzania
    (1988) Massawe, Julian J
    Agricultural development is essential for Tanzania's economic growth and national development. This dissertation reviews the development of agricultural documentation and information services, examines factors that pose obstacles in the development process and looks at the role and prospects of information technology, especially microcomputers, in agricultural information management in Tanzania. It is argued that there is need to adopt a coordinated approach to An effective exploitation and better management of these resources is the expected outcome. National bibliographic control is also envisaged. The major agricultural information systems - AGRICOLA, AGRIS and CAB described and their possible inputs into the The services expected from TADIS and their contribution toward the New developments, mainly CD-ROM and its potential as both a storage medium and a vehicle of document delivery are discussed.
  • Item
    An examination of the efficiency and effectiveness of circulation control systems of selected University libraries in Tanzania and Kenya
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2008) Kapaya, Chausiku Maulidi Omari
    This study examined the efficiency and effectiveness of circulation control systems in minimising book losses in the selected university libraries in Tanzania and Kenya. University libraries have been experiencing book losses either through extended or unrecorded overdue loans or illegal borrowing. Prior to computerization, the libraries except MTL used a manual circulation control system which was slow, cumbersome and time consuming. A multi-stage cluster sampling was used to select 494 participants, of these, 113 were from Sokoine, 116 from Nairobi, 106 from Moi and 159 from Dar es Salaam. Data was collected through a structured standardised self-administered questionnaire with both open-ended and closed questions, face -to -face interviews; observations and content analysis. Key findings revealed that for most respondents, the library is a key source of information and that inadequate student book allowances, low staff salaries, inadequate library budget, and where the circulation control system is manual, contribute greatly to book losses and mutilation in university libraries. Automated circulation control systems are more efficient in minimising book loss than manual circulation control systems. It is therefore recommended that libraries should computerise their library functions including circulation control systems in order to improve t he quality of services and to minimise book theft, overdues and mutilation. Library staff must also be committed, well paid and well motivated to enable them to perform their duties efficiently and effectively. University libraries and the parent institutions must invest in the training of staff in order to improve performance, efficiency and effectiveness. They must also be adequately funded in order to meet the information needs of the users and academic programmes offered at the universities.
  • Item
    The status and practice of information literacy for teaching and learning in four Tanzanian Universities
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2007) Lwehabura, Mugyabuso J. F.
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the status and practice of information literacy in Tanzania’s four universities with the primary intention of establishing the foundation for appropriate strategies that could be adopted when introducing or developing information literacy programmes into higher learning institutions in Tanzania that are systematic, effective and capable of fostering adequate information literacy knowledge and skills in students. Information literacy is a set of skills and knowledge that allows people to find, evaluate, and use the information that they need. These skills also help people filter and synthesise the information they encounter so that they can use that which is useful and meaningful. Information literacy knowledge and skills are the necessary tools that help people successfully find their way in the present and future field of information. The importance of information literacy is based on the fact that technological developments of the 21st century require that people in all walks of life acquire information literacy knowledge and skills so as to be able to adjust, cope, work and function compatibly with various changes that are taking place in all aspect of daily life and human activities. In the academic arena information literacy enables students to become competent and independent learners because they acquire the knowledge and skills to know their own information needs and an ability to manage the tools of technology gives access to relevant information, for communication and to problem solving. Tanzania is a developing country, where the school library system has a very poor infrastructure in terms of resources. This situation denies school leavers the opportunity to acquire appropriate knowledge and the skills required to use various information resources. Systematic information literacy intervention at all educational levels is vital not only for learning independence and academic performance but also for life-long learning skills. ivThe data for this study were collected from Sokoine University of Agriculture, University of Dar-Es-Salaam, Iringa University College and Saint Augustine University of Tanzania. Self-administered questionnaires were used together with data from 358 teaching staff, 25 librarians and 664 students and interviews were conducted with three Deputy Vice Chancellors (Academic), 12 Faculty Deans, two Library Directors and one Library Head. In addition data were also collected through observation. The study found that although the four universities’ librarians provide some form of information literacy instruction, using a combination of methods that include orientation, lectures, hands-on practice and web-page, this instruction was not effective in fostering the required information literacy knowledge and skills in students. Thus the study established that most students lack adequate skills in the use of both electronic and non­ electronic information sources. The study also established a number of impediments that are linked to the non­ effectiveness of information instruction. The researcher considered the lack of an explicit information literacy policy, to provide guidance and directives on how information literacy activities should be conducted, as the main barrier to information literacy activities in the universities studied. Lack of an information literacy policy led to the existing information literacy programmes not being allocated official time within the university timetable, hence they were being attended by students on a voluntary basis. Lack of a formalised programme and inadequate resources are also among the factors that contribute to the ineffectiveness. However, the study found that the potential opportunity for conducting information literacy in a more systematic and effective manner can be created through involving teaching staff in information literacy activities and integrating information literacy into the mainstream curriculum.
  • Item
    The contribution of indigenous agro-biodiversity knowledge management practices for improving livelihoods of local communities: a case study of Masasi and Nachingwea districts in Tanzania
    (Dar es Salaam University, 2016) Malekani, Andrew Watson
    The study was conducted in Lindi (Nachingwea district) and Mtwara (Masasi district) to investigate and document existing indigenous knowledge practices on management of agro-biodiversity and show how Nonaka and Konnos’ 1998 KM model (Socialization. Extcrnalization. Combination and Internalization (SECI)) can be applied to manage indigenous knowledge related to agro-biodiversity in local communities. Combined with Adapted Sustainable Livelihood model, the study also sought to investigate how such knowledge contributes to livelihoods of local communities. This study employed a mixed research design, using cross-sectional and case study designs. The study population was drawn from small holder farmers, village leaders, and Indigenous Knowledge (IK) intermediaries. Purposive sampling was used to select districts, villages, key informants and participants for Focus Group Discussions (FGD). Systematic sampling was used to select heads of households. Their names were picked from the village government register. The total sample for this study was 230 heads of households. 16 key informants (village leaders), 4 indigenous knowledge intermediaries (extension and forest officers) and 80 participants from Focus Group Discussions (FGDs). A Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software Version 16.0 was used to generate frequencies and percentages. Quantitative data was analyzed quantitatively. Qualitative data was analyzed using content analysis. Key findings revealed that local communities possess a wide range of indigenous knowledge on soil fertility, intercropping, seed storage, cultivation methods, moisture preservation, and crop preservation. Findings further revealed that fire, fallow and buffer zones are used to demarcate protected areas and village by laws to guide land usage. Findings further revealed that farmers rely heavily on tacit knowledge as opposed to recorded knowledge. The study concluded that farmers create new knowledge through face-to-face and group interactions, folklore, carvings and initiation rites and that IK is largely transferred through oral tradition and demonstrations and is preserved in human minds. The study recommends that KM practices on management of agro-biodiversity should be the responsibility of communities, village authorities, public and private sectors and that the government and private agro-biodiversity actors should foster KM practices on management of agro-biodiversity by engaging communities in the identification, mapping, dissemination and preservation of IK and should conduct user studies to determine areas for intervention. These will help local communities to sustain their farming systems and hence ensure their livelihoods.
  • Item
    Enhancing farmers’ access to and use of agricultural information for empowerment and improved livelihoods: a case of Morogoro region, Tanzania
    (SOKOINE UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE, 2008) Matovelo, Doris Siima
    This study aimed at exploring and testing an intervention that could stimulate and promote the practice of proactive information acquisition by farmers as a strategy for empowerment, reduction of poverty and improvement of livelihoods. It was conducted in Morogoro region in Tanzania in two main stages; the situation analysis survey stage in ten villages, and a longitudinal participatory action-oriented stage which was an intervention phase in four villages. The Village Information Centre (VIC) model was established, monitored and evaluated. This was preceded by the pre-intervention knowledge test in the four research villages and two control villages. Descriptive statistics and frequency distribution of variables were computed, a chi-square test and a regression analysis for selected sets of variables were done. The majority of farmers were between 28-47 years old. Slightly more than half (56%) of all farmers had completed primary school education. Furthermore, 76% of the farmers had functional literacy, and 55% of all respondents had a habit of reading at least once in several months. Close to 90% of all respondents had some printed information in their homes, with newspapers being the most common item. The VIC was highly acceptable in all villages, but the age. level of education and gender were significant factors (p < 0.05) influencing awareness of, visits to and use of the VIC. Farmers revealed diverse and unmet information needs that were not necessarily related to their agricultural activities. The “push” phenomenon inherent in some extension approaches may have led most farmers to develop passive recipience that does not necessarily promote a “pull” phenomenon. Exposure to information is probably needed in order to stimulate a demand for information. The VIC initiative has also demonstrated the presence of reading skills that arc under-utilized. This is a challenge and opportunity for information professionals. Therefore it is recommended that documentary information workers prepare a strategy, which will have a complementary role to the regular extension services, on enhancing the practice of proactive information acquisition by farmers for their own empowerment and improvement of their livelihoods.
  • Item
    Application of knowledge management approaches and information and communication technologies to manage indigenous knowledge in the agricultural sector in selected districts of Tanzania
    (University of KwaZulu-Natal, 2009) Lwoga, Edda
    This study investigated the extent to which knowledge management (KM) approaches and information and communication technologies (ICTs) can be used to manage agricultural indigenous knowledge (IK), and introduce relevant exogenous knowledge in some local communities of Tanzania. The recognition and management of local practices do not only give confidence to farmers that their knowledge and skills are valued, but also leads to the preservation and continued use of their IK. Managing IK within and across communities can help to enhance cross-cultural understanding and promote the cultural dimension of agricultural development in the local communities. The current state of managing agricultural IK and access to relevant exogenous knowledge in the selected local communities in Tanzania was investigated. The study used mixed research methods, where the qualitative approach was the dominant method. Both quantitative and qualitative data were gathered simultaneously during a single phase of data collection. The primary purpose was to gather qualitative data through the semi-structured interviews, focus groups, non-participant observation, and participatory rural appraisal tools (information mapping and linkage diagrams, and problem trees). The secondary purpose was to gather quantitative data through closed questions which were embedded in the same semi-structured interviews. Both qualitative and quantitative data analyses were kept separate, and then they were combined or integrated into the meta-inferences. Some of the qualitative themes were also transformed into counts, and these counts were compared with descriptive quantitative data. The study participants included three categories of respondents: local communities (farmers and village leaders), IK policy makers (institutions that deal with intellectual property policies in Tanzania), and knowledge intennediaries (institutions that deal with agricultural KM activities in the rural areas). The findings indicated that KM approaches can be used to manage IK and appropriately introduce exogenous knowledge in the local communities, and thus the integration of both indigenous and exogenous knowledge can be feasible. The study findings showed that farmers possessed an extensive base of agricultural IK. However, this knowledge was acquired, ivdeveloped and shared within a small, weak and spontaneous network, and thus knowledge loss was prevalent in the surveyed communities. Formal sources of knowledge mainly focused on disseminating exogenous knowledge in the local communities, which showed the predominance of the exogenous knowledge system over IK in the surveyed local communities. The study found that most of the farmers’ knowledge was tacit and it was created and shared through human interactions, and thus lack of ICTs did not constitute a barrier for KM practices in the rural areas. The study findings showed that radio was the major ICT used to access exogenous and indigenous knowledge in the local communities. There was low use of ICTs to share and preserve agricultural IK in the local communities. Although there was a predominance of the exogenous knowledge system over IK in the local communities, fanners applied IK gained from tacit and explicit sources of knowledge in their fanning systems as compared to exogenous knowledge in the surveyed communities. Farmers trusted their own knowledge since it did not challenge their assumptions as would new knowledge from research institutions and universities. Low use of exogenous knowledge on some farming aspects was attributed to the fact that few knowledge intermediaries had identified and prioritized farmers’ knowledge and needs in the local communities. Individual and collective interactions were already used to integrate farmers’ knowledge and exogenous knowledge in the local communities, however, they needed to be strengthened through KM practices. The study findings showed that various factors determined access to knowledge in the communities, which included ICTs, culture of a certain locality, trust, status, context and space. The findings also showed that the lack of IK policy and existence of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) that inadequately recognised and protected IK, limited acquisition, sharing and preservation of IK in the surveyed communities in Tanzania. The study concluded that unless KM approaches are applied, IK will continue to disappear, and the rural fanners will have nothing to rely on, for their farming practices. Since knowledge is the collective expertise of everyone in the communities, this study recommends that KM practices should be embedded in the community, private and public agricultural actors and other government and private institutions as they currently function in the local communities. The government and private agricultural actors should foster the KM practices in the local communities by engaging the community leaders and rural people in the whole process. Since VIK is site-specific, it can therefore seldom be scaled up without an adaptation, however it can be used to stimulate experimentation and innovation in other communities. With this view, this study recommends that knowledge should not be separated from the individuals who possess it, instead efforts should be made to enable the communities to manage their own knowledge, and to adapt other knowledge systems to suit their local context for effective KM practices. Indigenous knowledge would be effectively managed and integrated with exogenous knowledge if the government ensures that there are policies and Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) that recognise and protect the existing knowledge in the country. These policies may include sectoral policies that deal with IK, rural development, agriculture, ICTs, education issues and various other issues. These policies should comprise the following: (i) a shared definition of and vision for KM in the country; (ii) the clear goals/strategies for the innovation initiatives to take place in the rural areas; and (iii) guidance with regard to prioritizing, deciding upon, and taking action to institutionalize KM processes in the rural areas with linkages to gender perspectives. Issues related to the capacity building, culture, content, infrastructure, and leadership should be addressed at this level for effective implementation of KM services in the rural areas. This will enable the communities and agricultural actors (such as research, extension, NGOs, libraries) to establish KM practices and a culture that is conducive for KM activities in their localities. Further, the study recommends that public and private institutions, knowledge intermediaries (such as research, extension, NGOs, libraries) and village leaders should be involved in the KM practices in the rural areas, and they should ensure that there is a committed leadership for KM activities, knowledge culture, appropriate ICTs, favourable context and space, and mapping to locate knowledge bearers and knowledge resources in the rural areas. However, the absence of ICTs should not constitute a barrier for KM and knowledge integration processes, since the findings showed that communities are more likely to understand, acquire and use knowledge that is shared through indigenous communication channels which are oral in nature rather than other approaches such as ICTs.
  • Item
    Implementation of policies and strategies for agricultural information access and use in Tanzania
    (Pietermaritzburg, University of Natal, 2001) Chailla, Angela Mashauri
    Agriculture is an important enterprise in Africa and indeed in Tanzania where it is one of the major economic sectors, embracing all its population. Agriculture contributes about 60% to the Gross Domestic Product, generates about 75% of the total export earnings and employs 84% of the Tanzanian active labour force. Information plays a critical role in agricultural development in most countries. However, one of the most serious reasons adduced for the low agricultural production in Africa is the limited access to adequate information support to all stakeholders in agricultural production. This affects all sectors of research, extension and training. Inadequate access to and use of agricultural information by research scientists undermines the potential to fulfil their information needs. They often lack access to current, relevant and timely information. This results in duplication of research efforts. Lack of access to scientific literature in the agricultural field in Tanzania has been attributed to the ineffectiveness of the various information providers in the country, among which the key ones are agricultural libraries and documentation centres. Studies by agricultural information specialists and international organizations have established that agricultural libraries and documentation centres in Less Developed Countries have not excelled in providing agricultural information to users. This has been attributed to several reasons. The major one being the non-implementation of policies, strategies and recommendations advanced by scholars, international organizations and consultants for more availability, accessibility and use of agricultural libraries’ services and facilities. The main objectives of this study were to establish the extent to which Tanzania has implemented the key policies, strategies and recommendations for enhancing accessibility and use of agricultural libraries and documentation centres’ services and facilities. Some of the key policies and strategies recommended by scholars include; increasing the libraries capacity in human, financial and material resources. Such policies and strategies include, among many others: library staff development, (iii)cooperation and networking among agricultural libraries and documentation centres at national regional and international levels and formulation of national information policies to give guidance to agricultural information acquisition, organization, management and provision. They also include formulation of Information and Communication Technologies’ policies for standardization in operating systems and data formats. Two main data collection instruments were used in the study namely; a self administered questionnaire and an interview schedule. The instruments were supplemented by on site observations of the libraries’ operational activities. The sample size comprised 34 agricultural libraries and documentation centres located in all seven agricultural zones and 18 interviewees from the Ministry of agriculture, agricultural institutions and research stations. The Statistical Product and Service Solution (SPSS) for Windows version 9.0 was used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data. The problems facing agricultural libraries and documentation centres in Less Developed Countries today are many and varied, and differ from one country to another. In Tanzania, the study findings established that these problems can be classified into six major categories: lack of adequate resources/materials; inadequate number of qualified personnel at managerial, professional and technical levels; lack of cooperation and coordination among existing libraries and documentation centres; limited financial resources; lack of explicit and operational training programmes for library personnel and lack of a national information policy per se. Tanzania has a number of sectoral policies in place, related to information, technology and research. These “little sectoral policies” are fragmented and need a policy framework to provide the missing coordination. The study established that the number of skilled information staff in the national agricultural library system was small. Libraries and documentation centres in many agricultural institutions and research stations were poorly equipped and lacked professional trained staff. Furthermore, operational budgets were limited and hence lack of current and relevant library materials including subscriptions to scientific (iv)journals. Contacts of agricultural information personnel with regional and international circuits on development were found limited. The study findings also revealed that the agricultural library information system in Tanzania was lacking in efficiency and effectiveness in meeting the diversified information needs of agriculturalists, particularly the research scientists. To this effect, where information was abundantly available, it was often inaccessible due to lack of technical know-how in documentation, organization and management for awareness of its availability to users. The study assumed that the global Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and current technological developments in the publishing industry could facilitate effective agricultural information organization and management, including repackaging of information for extension personnel and farmers, and resource sharing via electronic networking. However, the poor economic growth of Tanzania, as in other Less Developed Countries, has posed limitations to the full utilization of ICTs through lack of resources, policy guidelines and frameworks for the implementation of such policies. The study concluded that there has not been an effective and efficient implementation of policies, strategies and recommendations for access and use of agricultural information in Tanzania due to a number of problems, the main ones being: lack of awareness of the policies and strategies among the libraries, parent organizations and policy makers and lack of capacity of the libraries and documentation centres to implement the policies, strategies and recommendations. The study recommended that agricultural libraries and documentation centres in Tanzania be given priority in budget allocation for acquisition of basic equipment, such as photocopiers and micro­ computers and for training library personnel at all levels. The more affluent libraries, such as the Sokoine National Agricultural Library and the Division of Research and Development library of the Ministry of agriculture, should audit their resources to determine the best ways to assist the documentation centres in remote research stations to organize and adequately present the required information to users. Agricultural libraries’ managers and information specialists (V) should become more assertive,focused, and committed in finding out about the policies and recommendations and eventually working out the requirements for their implementation and monitoring.
  • Item
    The role of Newspapers in the dissemination of climate change information in Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2021) Siyao, Peter O
    Newspapers make an important communication channel for disseminating many kinds of information. However, there are concerns in many developing countries such as Tanzania that important developmental topics such as climate change are not often given adequate coverage and prominence; instead much attention is paid to topics such as politics, entertainments, crimes, and advertisements. This study established the coverage of climate change information in Tanzanian newspapers for a span of 10 years. Specifically, it sought to determine the frequency of reportage given to climate change information in Tanzanian newspapers, determine the level of prominence given to climate change information by Tanzanian newspapers, establish the sources of information used by newspaper journalists to obtain climate change information, and assess the use of newspapers in accessing climate change information by selected peri-urban newspaper readers in Tanzania. Quantitative data were collected through content analysis and survey whereas qualitative data were collected through key informants interviews. The sample size of the study was 1,600 newspaper editions, 44 newspaper journalists, and 153 peri-urban newspaper readers. Purposive sampling technique was used to select newspapers, regions, and key informants. Snowball sampling technique was used to select peri-urban newspaper readers. Systematic and simple random sampling techniques were used to obtain newspaper editions and journalists. Quantitative data were analysed using IBM SPSS Statistics Version 20 whereas qualitative data were analysed using content analysis. This thesis was developed in paper format. The first paper analysed the level of attention given to climate change information by Tanzanian newspapers. The results indicate that Tanzanian newspapers had very few (684; 0.84%) articles on climate change giving yearlyiii average of 68.4 articles. Chi-square test indicates a significant difference at 5 percent level of significance (χ2 = 21,765, p-value < 2.2e _16 ) between the level of coverage of climate change articles and that of other topics in the selected newspapers. These findings suggest that Tanzanian newspapers do not pay adequate attention to climate change issues. The second paper analysed the level of prominence given to climate change information by Tanzanian newspapers. The findings indicate that of the 684 climate change information articles published in 10 years, only 53 (7.6%) articles appeared on the front pages of the six Tanzanian newspapers, giving yearly average of five articles for all newspapers and only one article for each newspaper per year. Chi-square test shows a statistical significance at 5 percent level (χ2 = 10.000; p-value<0.002) between placement of articles on the front and inside pages. These findings suggest that climate change information in Tanzanian newspapers is not given the required level of prominence. The third paper assessed information sources used by Tanzanian newspaper journalists to collect climate change information. The findings indicate that 64 percent of climate change experts and 34.1 percent of daily events such as community meetings and other social gatherings were the main sources of climate change information consulted by newspaper journalists in Tanzania. Other sources of information were less consulted. These include libraries and information centres (2.3%); brochures, magazines, and bulletins (5.6%); journals (11.4%), books (14%), and internet websites (22.7%). Challenges such as abiding by journalistic norms to balance news in climate change (91%), low motivation (77.30%), lack of interest in climate change (75%), financial constraints (68.20%), lack of awareness on the available sources of information (63.64%) and limited knowledge on climate change (61.36%) prevented newspaper journalists from seeking and reporting climate change information.iv The fourth paper assessed the use of newspapers by peri-urban newspaper readers in accessing climate change information. The findings show that newspapers (65%) are important sources used by peri-urban newspaper readers to access climate change information. Peri-urban newspaper readers experienced challenges such as inadequate coverage of climate change information (87%), unreliability of climate change information (84%), low prominence attached to climate change information (82%), cost barriers (78%), inadequate community information centres and public libraries (73%) in peri-urban areas. These were reported as constraints that impeded newspapers from accessing climate change information. In view of the foregoing findings, it is concluded that coverage of climate change information in Tanzanian newspapers is very low. This is reflected by the few number of climate change articles in these newspapers. Similarly, the level of prominence attached to climate change articles is very low. This means that Tanzanian newspapers have not adequately played their role of reporting developmental issues including climate change. Increased coverage of climate change information in Tanzanian newspapers is necessary for the government and general public to direct their efforts to climate change adaptation, coping, and mitigation strategies. Furthermore, newspaper journalists prefer to consult interactive sources to obtain climate change information because they allow a two-way flow of information, they are easily accessible, and they use and provide instant responses. Likewise, climate change information consumers prefer to use newspapers written in Kiswahili which is understood by majority of readers and those which have high news coverage and circulation. The following recommendations are made: (i) Government and private media houses should formulate and introduce clear guidelines and policies of ensuring that the levels of coverage and prominence ofv developmental issues including climate change information in Tanzanian newspapers are increased. (ii) Government, private newspaper media houses, climate change researchers, organisations involved in the fight against climate change, and journalism colleges should collaborate and devise strategies aimed at building capacity to newspaper editors, journalists, and reporters of dealing with climate change information. This can be achieved by introducing climate change journalism course which will in turn lead to the acquisition of specialised skills and knowledge in writing and reporting evidence based scientific developmental issues findings including climate change in the print media such as newspapers. Newspaper media houses should overcome barriers that impede coverage and reportage of climate change information. One way of overcoming such barriers include the provision of adequate financial resources to newspaper journalists which will help them acquire necessary resources including ICTs and for meeting other necessary expenses such as travel and accommodation which in turn will enable them to participate in research works for increasing coverage of climate change information in the newspapers. Climate change information generators such as Tanzania Meteorological Agency should repackage and disseminate reliable climate change forecast that address the needs of the public through popular newspapers with national status. National and local government authorities should provide adequate financial support to public libraries in establishing community information resource centres in peri-urban areas for enabling newspaper readers to access developmental information particularly newspapers at no or minimal costs.
  • Item
    Internet fraud among e-commerce operators and customers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
    (College of Business Education, 2019-11) John, Stephano
    This study sought to investigate Internet fraud among Business to Consumer e-commerce operators and customers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The study specifically examined the extent of using e-commerce among customers and operators. It also examined the level of awareness about internet fraud, the extent of experienced internet fraud and factors influencing internet fraud among customers and operators during engagement in e-commerce activities. The study population comprised B2C customers who had access to the internet from five wards of Ilala Municipal and e-commerce operators from different areas of Dar es Salaam. Data were collected through a questionnaire survey of 400 B2C customers in Ilala Municipal with a return rate of 80%. A total of nine key informants from e-commerce operators around Dar es Salaam were also interviewed. The Unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT2) was utilized in the study. The results revealed that all 268 surveyed respondents were engaged in different categories of e-commerce. They were mostly engaged in paying for several services that are offered by e- commerce operators followed by those who were engaged in reading news through e- commerce applications. Other B2C e-commerce categories were socializing, content followers, buying physical products and promotions also registered a reasonably high number of customers. Through interviews, it was also revealed that e-commerce operators had registered an increased number of users of their e-commerce activities and applications. Meanwhile, levels of awareness about internet fraud among customers and operators are low, because of the lack of knowledge to recognize and respond to various fraudulent activities. The findings also confirm that operators and customers lost money and products as a result of their participation in e-commerce activities. Through this study it was not possible to reveal the extent of the loss incurred, because respondents and key informants were not willing to disclose. It was also revealed that there were serious problems with mobile money services, as both e- commerce operators and customers expressed. At multivariate analysis, it was discovered that among the factors influencing behavioural intention were performance expectancy, social influence, hedonic motivation, perceived risk and awareness. The study also found that social influence, awareness, facilitating conditions and behavioural intention were significant factors in influencing customers use behaviour of e-commerce applications. Further, there was no statistically significant relationship between both e-commerce use and behavioural intention and internet fraud. At the Chi-Square test, the study found that the level of awareness about internet fraud and use behaviour was influenced by level of education. Those who are educated showed high level of awareness for their engagement in online shopping compared to their counterparts. In the same manner, level of education influenced the use behaviour of e-commerce activities. The findings conclude that e-commerce activities are becoming more important to Dar es Sa- laam residents due to its benefits and convenient and hence increase in users of e-commerce applications. However, more efforts are required to raise awareness of internet fraud, benefits of e-commerce and the negative impact of internet fraud are of profound importance. Therefore, this study recommends that the government, e-commerce operators and other business stakeholders should work together to improve e-commerce activities, specifically on payment mechanisms. On the same way, law enforcement authorities should take stern actions against fraudsters, specifically to mobile money services as it had been revealed to be a serious problem.
  • Item
    Mobile phone use in accessing rice information for adaptation to climate change in Kilosa and Kilombero districts, Morogoro, Tanzania
    (2020) Mwalukasa, N.
    The study aimed at determining the use of mobile phones in accessing rice information for adaptation to climate change in Kilosa and Kilombero Districts in Morogoro Region. The study involved 400 rain fed-rice farmers owning mobile phones. The study adopted a cross-sectional research design to collect data using a semi-structured questionnaire, focus group discussions and key informants interview. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used in the data analysis. Quantitative data were analysed using frequency, percentages, chi-square, binary logistic regression and poisson count regression. Qualitative data were analysed through content analysis. The study found that socio-demographic factors influenced respondents‟ use of mobile phone for accessing rice information for adaptation to climate change were sex, age, education level, marital status, farm size, farming experience, radio ownership and off-farm incomes. In addition, access to market location was statistically significantly influenced use of mobile phones for accessing rice information for adaptation to climate change at p< 0.02. Moreover, few, 99 (24.8%)of the respondents used mobile phone to access strategic rice information while 105 (26.3%) of the respondents used mobile phone to access tactical rice information for adaptation to climate change. Furthermore, use of mobile phones for accessing rice information for adaption to climate change among study districts was low and did not differ at p< 0.08. Voice calling was most used application compared to other application. Moreover, type of rice variety, type of herbicides and weather forecast information was the major rice information for adaptation to climate change accessed by respondents through mobile phone. The study concludes that socio-demographic and institutional factors influence use of mobile phones for accessing rice information for adaptation to climate change. It can also be concluded the respondents‟ use of mobile phones to access rice information for adaptation to climate change in study areas was low. The study recommends that Kilosa and Kilombero Districts council through DAICO‟s should train farmers in using mobile phones in accessing rice information for adaptation to climate change through campaigns, workshop and seminars.
  • Item
    Using information and communication technologies to enhance information sharing for improved fish farming productivity in Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2019) Benard, R.
    The use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in sharing information is very important in enhancing fish farming productivity among fish farmers. However, little is known on the linkage that exists between the use of ICTs and fish farming productivity in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania. The main objective of this study was to assess the use of ICTs to enhance information sharing for improved fish farming productivity in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania. Specifically, the study focused on establishment of the information needs of fish farmers in the study area; analyzing the influence of ICTs use in sharing agricultural information on fish farming productivity in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania; examining the determinants of the ICTs usage in sharing agricultural information among fish farmers in Tanzania, and determining the challenges facing fish farmers on the use of ICTs in sharing agricultural information. This cross sectional study was conducted in three regions, namely, Ruvuma, Mbeya and Iringa and involved twelve divisions purposively selected from six districts. The study used both quantitative and qualitative approaches in collecting data. Questionnaires, Focus Group Discussions (FGDs), observation and key informants interview were used as a data collection methods. The study involved 240 fish farmers who were randomly selected. Moreover, six key informants (one fisheries extension officer in each of the six districts) and six Focus Group Discussions (eight participants in each of the districts) were conducted in each district. Quantitative data were analysed with the aid of the Statistical Product Service SolutionP (SPSS) Version 20 while content analysis was used to analyse qualitative data. Descriptive statistics were computed to establish the profile of research participants: information needs, information accessibility, challenges of ICTs use in information sharing, and fish farming productivity level. The multiple linear regression was used to establish the influence of ICTs use and fish farming productivity. Additionally, the ordinal logistic regression model was used to examine the determinants of ICTs usage by fish farmers. The fish farmers highly needed information related to water treatment (management), spawning operations and fish preservation and processing. However, it was found that access to these categories of information was very low. Mulitple linear regression analysis revealed that the use of ICTs (mobile phones, radio, and television) for sharing agricultural information was found to influence fish productivity level (p<0.05). Moreover, it was found through ordinal logistic regression analysis that the predictors of ICTs use in information sharing were income, perceived ease of use, quantity of fish produced, attitude, household size, radio ownership and perceived usefulness. Likewise, the study findings revealed that major challenges facing fish farmers in sharing information included unfavorable radio or televisions broadcasting time, high cost of acquiring and maintenance of ICT facilities, lack of training on ICTs, and poor network connectivity. The study concluded that the more the frequency the farmers use the ICTs in sharing agricultural information on fish farming technologies, the more they could be informed about fish farming, and thus the more they could increase their fish farming productivity. It is recommended to the Government, Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs), researchers and policy makers to consider establishing community FM radio stations in the Southern Highland regions to encourage sharing of agricultural information on fish production and knowledge to the farmers. It was also recommended that responsible organs like research institutions, policy makers and information providers should make sure that behavioural factors (perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness and attitude) that motivate individual farmers in different communities to accept the use of any ICTs are considered prior to the introduction of the respective technologies. This could assist responsible organs to design the ICT models that are relevant to fish farmers’ needs.