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    Influence of complementary food on growth and iron status of infants aged 6-12 months in Kilosa district Tanzania.
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2004) Mamiro Peter Ruwaichi Simon
    Childhood malnutrition remains a common and major problem in Tanzania. Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) and micronutrient deficiencies are the major problems that j occur during the transitional phase from breast milk to solid complementary foods J (CFs) in infants. According to WHO (1999), PEM among under-fives in Tanzania stands at 31% while iron deficiency anemia affects 32% of the infants. Others include I'* iodine deficiency disorders (25%) and Vitamin A deficiency (6%). Most studies have ' associated inadequate intake and poor utilization of nutrients at the complementing age as the immediate causes ofthese problems. In the jfirst chapter various literature sources were consulted. General situation with regard >to malnutrition among children including some pertinent causative factors are I . discussed. A brief discussion on breastfeeding, CFs and micronutrient availability ’■ I ♦ from CFs is presented along with the importance of phytic acid in micronutrient availability. Various techniques that have been used to increase energy density ofCFs such as germination and fermentation are described. Quality and safety aspects ofCFs with regard to contamination with bacteria, cyanides and mycotoxins have been reviewed. These are important because they might be the potential sources of various diseases affecting childrens’ health. Production of low cost CFs that can be afforded by the majority of children, who are faced with nutritional problems, especially in the ruralareasofdevelopingcountriesisdiscussed. Finally,successandfailurestoriesof intervention programs that were implemented to solve nutritional problems among communities in developing countries from early senventies to the recent years community trials are presented.
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    Assessing the awareness, knowledge, attitude and practice of the community towards solid waste disposal and identifying the threats and extent of bacteria in the solid waste disposal sites in Morogoro municipality in Tanzania
    (IISTE, 2015) Chengula, Augustino; Lucas, Bahati K; Mzula, Alexanda
    Solid wastes comprise all the wastes arising from human and animal activities that are normally solid, discarded as useless or unwanted materials. Health hazards associated with improper disposal of solid wastes to the community were investigated in Morogoro municipality. The aim of the project was to investigate the solid waste disposal practices and their health hazard implications to the community in Morogoro municipality. The study was conducted by considering several solid waste disposal sites based on three methods; observation, questionnaire survey and microbiological analysis. Based on observation method, several solid waste practices were detected including collection of wastes using trucks, wheel barrow, carriers made from elephant grasses and cement bags. Questionnaire survey pinpointed several diseases caused by solid wastes such as malaria, diarrhea, dysentery, cholera, typhoid and worm diseases from the respondents. From microbiological analysis, several pathogenic bacteria were identified from the solid disposal sites. The bacteria with their frequency of isolation identified were: Salmonella typhimurium (16.7%), Shigella dysenteriae (16.7%), Citrobacter freundii (8.3%), Citrobacter amalonaticus (8.3%), Aerobacter aerogenes (8.3%), Proteus vulgaris (16.7%), Klebsiella oxyotoca (8.3%), Klebsiella (8.3%), E.coli (8.3%). Solid waste generated by the daily activities of the people needs to be properly managed in such a way that it minimizes the risk to the environment and human health. Inadequate collection and disposal of solid waste is a major factor in the spread of disease and environmental degradation.
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    Determination of the presence of babesia DNA in blood samples of cattle, camel and sheep in Iran by PCR
    (Belgrade, 2014-10-13) Khamesipour, Faham; Doosti, Abbas; Koohi, Arman; Chehelgerdi, Mohammad; Mokhtari-Farsani, Abbas; Chengula, Augustino Alfred
    Babesia species are protozoan parasites that parasitize the erythrocytes of domestic animals and humans, caus- ing anemia in the host affected. These parasites cause a zoonotic disease known as babesiosis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has proven to be very sensitive for detecting Babesia in blood samples of affected animals, particular in ruminants. The purpose of the current study was to determine the presence of Babesia DNA in the blood samples obtained from cattle, camel and sheep in Iran. In addition, the study aimed at establishing a rapid, reliable, specific and sensitive molecular tool, the PCR, for the detection of Babesia DNA in ruminants and dromedaries. Blood samples were collected from 372 rumi- nants and dromedaries (155 cattle, 95 sheep and 122 camel) kept at the Livestock Experimental Station. The animals came from randomly selected herds located in the important livestock-production regions of Iran of Isfahan and Chaharmahal va Bakhtiary during December 2012 to March 2013. PCR was used to detect Babesia DNA in the blood samples whereby an amplified band size of 428 bp was considered positive for Babesia spp. The results indicated that 7.10% (n= 155), 6.56% (n= 122) and 0.00% (n= 95) of the blood samples from cattle, camel and sheep were positive for Babesia DNA, respectively. The findings from this study revealed that there were Babesia DNA in blood taken from cattle and camel. To our knowl- edge, this is the first report to show the presence of Babesia DNA in blood samples of Iranian ruminants and dromedaries in Chaharmahal Va Bakhtiari and Isfahan provinces by PCR method. Though, diagnosis of low-level infections by the pa- rasite is important for the epidemiological studies. Our findings support the power of PCR test for Babesia DNA detection in blood samples and could be easily used for routine diagnosis.
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    A study of rift valley fever virus in Morogoro and Arusha regions of Tanzania - serology and farmers’ perceptions
    (Taylor & Francis Group, 2015-11-18) Wensman, Jonas J; Lindahl, Johanna; Wachtmeister, Nica; Torsson, Emeli; Gwakisa, Paul; Kasanga, Christopher; Misinzo, Gerald
    Introduction: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonosis primarily affecting ruminants, resulting in epidemic abortions, fever, nasal and ocular discharges, haemorrhagic diarrhoea, and a high mortality rate among young animals. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an arthropod-borne RNA virus occurring in epizootic periods associated with heavy rainfall. The last outbreak of RVF in Tanzania was in 2006 2007, resulting in severe economic losses and impaired food security due to greater number of deaths of livestock. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of antibodies against RVFV in sheep and goats in two different regions of Tanzania during an inter-epidemic period (IEP). In addition, the perception of important diseases among livestock keepers was assessed. Material and methods: A cross-sectional serological survey was conducted in three purposively selected districts in Arusha and Morogoro regions of Tanzania. Serum samples from 354 sheep and goats were analysed in a commercial RVFV competitive ELISA. At the sampling missions, a questionnaire was used to estimate the socio-economic impact of infectious diseases. Results and discussion: In total, 8.2% of the analysed samples were seropositive to RVF, and most seropositive animals were younger than 7 years, indicating a continuous circulation of RVFV in the two regions. None of the livestock keepers mentioned RVF as an important livestock disease. Conclusions: This study confirms that RVFV is circulating at low levels in small ruminants during IEPs. In spite of recurring RVF outbreaks in Tanzania, livestock keepers seem to have a low awareness of the disease, making them poorly prepared and thus more vulnerable to future RVF outbreaks.
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    Diagnosis and genotyping of African swine fever viruses from 2015 outbreaks in Zambia
    (AOSIS Publishing, 2016-04-29) Thoromo, Jonas; Simulundu, Edgar; Chambaro, Herman M; Mataa, Liywalii; Lubaba, Caesar H; Pandey, Girja S; Takada, Ayato; Misinzo, Gerald; Mweene, Aaron S
    In early 2015, a highly fatal haemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs resembling African swine fever (ASF) occurred in North Western, Copperbelt, and Lusaka provinces of Zambia. Molecular diagnosis by polymerase chain reaction targeting specific amplification of p72 (B646L) gene of ASF virus (ASFV) was conducted. Fourteen out of 16 domestic pigs from the affected provinces were found to be positive for ASFV. Phylogenetic analyses based on part of the p72 and the complete p54 (E183L) genes revealed that all the ASFVs detected belonged to genotypes I and Id, respectively. Additionally, epidemiological data suggest that the same ASFV spread from Lusaka to other provinces possibly through uncontrolled and/or illegal pig movements. Although the origin of the ASFV that caused outbreaks in domestic pigs in Zambia could not be ascertained, it appears likely that the virus may have emerged from within the country or region, probably from a sylvatic cycle. It is recommended that surveillance of ASF, strict biosecurity, and quarantine measures be imposed in order to prevent further spread and emergence of new ASF outbreaks in Zambia.
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    History and current status of peste des petits ruminants virus in Tanzania
    (Co-acting Publishing, 2016-10-20) Torsson, Emeli; Kgotlele, Tebogo; Berg, Mikael; Mtui-Malamsha, Niwael; Swai, Emanuel S; Wensman, Jonas Johansson; Misinzo, Gerald
    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes the acute, highly contagious disease peste des petits ruminants (PPR) that affects small domestic and wild ruminants. PPR is of importance in the small livestock-keeping industry in Tanzania, especially in rural areas as it is an important source of livelihood. Morbidity and case fatality rate can be as high as 80 100% in naı̈ve herds; however, in endemic areas, morbidity and case fatality range between 10 and 100% where previous immunity, age, and species of infected animal determine severity of outcome. PPR was officially confirmed in domestic animals in the Ngorongoro district of Tanzania in 2008. It is now considered to be endemic in the domestic sheep and goat populations throughout Tanzania, but restricted to one or more areas in the small ruminant wildlife population. In this article, we review the history and the current status of PPR in Tanzania and neighboring countries. To control and eradicate PPR in the region, a joint effort between these countries needs to be undertaken. The effort must also secure genuine engagement from the animal holders to succeed.
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    Antimicrobial susceptibility of flavobacteriaceae isolates from nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus) in Tanzania
    (African Journal of Microbiology Research, 2020) Mwega, Elisa; Chengula, Augustino; Colquhoun, Duncan; Mutoloki, Stephen; Mdegela, Robinson; Evensen, Øystein; Wasteson, Yngvild
    This study aimed to assess antimicrobial susceptibility of members of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Antimicrobial susceptibility of 67 Flavobacteriaceae isolates originating mainly from ponds and Lake Victoria against 19 antimicrobial agents was determined by the broth micro dilution method. Overall, most isolates were susceptible to enrofloxacin (97%; MIC 90 2 μg/ml) followed by novobiocin (85%, MIC 90, 4 μg/ml) and the aminoglycoside streptomycin (85%; MIC 90 , 128 μg/ml). Some isolates were also susceptible towards trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (77.6%), neomycin and florfenicol both at 62.7%. Susceptibility levels were low for tylosin tartrate (32.8%), clindamycin and sulphathiazole both at (23.9%), ceftiofur (6%), spectinomycin (6%) and tetracyclines/oxtetracyclines (4.5%). In contrast, β-Lactams (amoxicillin, penicillin), gentamycin and erythromycin exhibited very poor activity against Flavobacteriaceae isolates. The extent of antimicrobial susceptibility did not vary significantly among isolates from farmed and wild fish isolates (P > 0.01). The highest Multiple Antimicrobial Resistance (MAR) index was observed in Chryseobacterium indologenes (0.89) and the lowest in Chaetoderma indicum isolates (0.32). Our results indicate that most of Flavobacteriaceae isolates are multidrug resistance, and this may be associated with intrinsic resistance mechanisms to a broad range of antimicrobial agents. However, the need remains to carryout in-depth study to understand better the underlying genetic mechanisms given that the magnitude and trend for susceptibility was comparable between isolates from aquaculture and fisheries. The findings from this study give us insight into appropriate choice of antimicrobial agents for effective treatment of infections caused by these isolates.
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    Knowledge, attitudes and practices on rift valley fever among pastoral and agropastoral communities of Ngorongoro in the rift valley ecosystem, Tanzania, conducted in 2021/2022
    (PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 2023) Issae, Amina Ramadhani; Katakweba, Abdul Ahmed Selemani; Kicheleri, Rose Peter; Chengula, Augustino Alfred; Kasanga, Christopher Jacob
    Epidemics of Rift Valley fever (RVF), a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease caused by RVF virus, have been linked to exceptionally heavy rainfall and widespread flooding. The disease is endemic in most African countries and pose a major global health risk. Given that the dis- ease was reported in various districts of Tanzania, we hypothesized a lack of knowledge about RVF epidemiology among agropastoral and pastoral communities. The research took place in a period of 7 months, from July, 2021 to January, 2022. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) among the agropastoral and pastoral communities of Ngorongoro district towards RVF. The survey employed a mixed method system, which included 3 focus groups (each comprised 12 individuals), 20 key informant interviews and administration of questionnaire (N = 352) in agropastoral and pastoral com- munity members of Ngorongoro district. The relationship between demographic characteris- tics and communities’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding RVF was observed using a multiple logistic regression model. A total of 352 participants were interviewed, with the majority (67.61%) being male and 32.39% being female, majority (39.5%) attending pri- mary school, and majority (58.2%) being pastoralists. The findings showed that only 36.1%, 38.64% and 16.19% of participants had good knowledge, positive attitude and good prac- tices regarding RVF respectively. Significant demographic factors related with knowledge included: gender (OR = 1.9, CI = 1.03–3.56, P = 0.041), education levels (primary: OR = 3.97, CI = 2–8.16, P = 0.000; secondary: OR = 15.27, CI = 5.5–46.23, P = 0.000 and college: OR = 34. 23, CI = 5.4–67.22, P = 0.000), and locality (Pinyinyi: OR = 0.14, CI = 0.05–0.38, P = 0.000 and Sale: OR = 0.14, CI = 0.04–0.44, P = 0.001). Male participants showed signifi- cant positive attitude towards RVF compared to female (OR = 2.37, CI = 1.35–4.17, P = 0.003). Individuals with formal education showed a significant positive attitude toward RVF compared to informal (OR>1, P<0.05). Agropastoral members showed a significant nega- tive attitude toward RVF compared to pastoralists (OR = 0.51, CI = 0.26–0.99, P = 0.048).The calculated RVF prevention practices values were insignificantly (P = 0.853) correlated with knowledge values. The significant correlation between knowledge and attitude, as well as attitude and practice were found (P<0.05). In general, the study revealed poor knowl- edge, negative attitude and poor practices of communities towards RVF. The lack of regular education programs to make the communities aware of the disease was implicated for these findings. This recommends that provision of health education should be a long-term practice among agropastoral and pastoral communities in order to prevent further RVF out- breaks in Tanzania.
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    Knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices toward rodent-borne diseases in Ngorongoro district, Tanzania
    (Journal of Public Health in Africa, 2023-01-12) Issae, Amina; Chengula, Augustino; Kicheleri, Rose; Kasanga, Christopher; Katakweba, Abdul
    transmit diseases. Most of rodent-borne diseases are endemic in rural Africa and sporadically lead to epidemics. Ngorongoro district is inhabited by humans, livestock, and wild animals.Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward rodent-borne diseases among communities. The study used 3 focus groups, 20key informant interviews, and the questionnaire (N=352) to collect data. The study found that 8.52% of respondents had good knowledge, 35.5% had a positive attitude and 94.3% had good practices toward rodent-borne diseases. The study revealed that only28.13% of participants were aware of rodent-borne zoonoses. The majority of them (77.27%) believe that rodents are pests that destroy crops and do not transmit pathogens. Moreover, the results showed that the majority of them (82.9%) live in dilapidated huts that serve as rodent breeding places. Additionally, except for education and religion, the level of knowledge had no significant relationship with most of the participants’ demographic variables.When compared to individuals who didn’t attend school, those with secondary education (OR=7.96, CI=1.4-45.31, P=0.017) had greater knowledge of rodent-borne diseases and management.Similarly, to how attitude and practice were found to be consider-ably (r=0.3216, P=0.000) positively correlated, general knowledge and general practice scores were found to be significantly(r=0.1608, P=0.002) positively correlated. Despite showing good practices, the communities still lack knowledge of rodent-borne zoonosis. Rodent-borne disease education should be considered in Ngorongoro and other places.
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    Correlation between aspergillus flavus fungal biomass and aflatoxin contamination in harvested maize: insights from Kenya and Tanzania
    (Tehran university of medical sciences., 2023) Temba, Benigni Alfred; Bakari, Gaymary George; Mgonja, Frida Richard; Mushi, James Richard
    Controlling the occurrence of aflatoxins in foods must be accompanied by managing the fungi responsible for their production. The abundance and diversity of aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus are responsible for the accumulation of these toxins in crops, posing a persistent threat to public health and the economy in tropical developing countries. A study was conducted to investigate the occurrence and level of A. flavus and relate them to aflatoxin levels in maize in Kenya and Tanzania. A total of 786 maize samples were collected during harvesting in selected areas of the two countries for analysis. The fungal abundance in the samples was measured as the amount of fungal DNA relative to maize DNA. This was accomplished by quantifying the fungal DNA using qPCR, targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene, while the maize DNA was quantified through the alpha-tubulin gene, the two genes known to be conserved. Aflatoxins were quantified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography, coupled with ultra-high sensitivity, ultra-fast triple quadrupole tandem-mass spectrophotometer. A. flavus was detected in 88.5% of the 786 tested samples, and the average fungal load for these samples (expressed as the log host/pathogen ratio) was 5.53. Aflatoxin occurrence was positive in 31.9% of the samples, with an average level of 2.3 ± 0.643 ppb. The study established a positive relationship between the occurrence and level of aflatoxin B 1 and the presence and biomass of A. flavus, which was statistically proven. These findings emphasize the need to place substantial attention on preharvest control of A. flavus in cereal fields as an effort to control the accumulation of aflatoxin B1 in foods.
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    Factors affecting adoption of improved sorghum varieties in Tanzania under information and capital constraints
    (Springer, 2018) Kaliba, Aloyce R; Mazvimavi, Kizito; Gregory, Theresia L; Mgonja, Frida M; Mgonja, Mary
    Low adoption of agricultural technology is among the main reasons for low farm productivity and high incidence of poverty and food insecurity in sub-Saharan countries including Tanzania. In this study, we examine the factors affecting adoption of improved sorghum varieties using data from 822 randomly selected sample households in northern and central Tanzania. We employ a multiple-hurdle Tobit model to assess the factors affecting adoption after controlling for both capital and information constraints. We also use t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding to cluster farmers into homogeneous groups. The method allows to reduce the dimensionality while preserving the topology of the dataset, which increases the clustering accuracy. It also superiors for visualization of the clustering results. Results show that radio and other mass media outlets that create awareness will increase adoption among farmers who do not face capital constraint. Some farmers lack basic resources such as land and capital, and subsidies could have a high impact on these farmers. Other farmers simply need assurance on the performance of improved sorghum varieties. Field days, on-farm trials, and demonstration plots could be useful in supporting these farmers. A tailored support system, however, needs a sustained investment in both quantity and quality of services. There is therefore a need to develop a pluralistic research and extension systems that encourage the use of information technologies and community-based organizations to reach specific groups of farmers.
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    Participatory approaches for raising awareness among subsistence farmers in Tanzania about the spread of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors and the possible link to improper agricultural pesticide use
    (BMC, 2022) Matowo, Nancy Stephen; Tanner, Marcel; Temba, Benigni Alfred; Finda, Marceline; Mlacha, Yeromin Paul; Utzinger, Jürg; Okumu, Fredros Oketch
    Background: Insecticide resistance is a key barrier to long-term malaria control, and it may be exacerbated by poor agricultural pesticide use. Current practices, however, do not link public health and agricultural pesticide use. This study investigated the perspectives of farmers and other stakeholders regarding the integration of agricultural and public health measures to address resistance. Additionally, the feasibility of participatory workshops to increase the farmers’ understanding and participation in pesticide stewardship was assessed. Methods: Four themes were investigated: pesticide awareness, practices, and opinions of; insecticide resistance in malaria vectors; the effectiveness of current malaria prevention tools; and the links between agricultural and public health pesticide usage. Participatory workshops and field training were held with entomologists, farmers, and agri- cultural specialists, focusing on agro-ecosystem practices related to pest control; and local farmers were involved in live-testing for insecticides resistance of local Anopheles mosquitoes. Results: Most farmers (94%) considered pesticides effective, and nearly half of them (n = 198, 46.4%) could identify and name crop pests and diseases, mostly using local names. Three quarters were unaware of mosquito larvae in their fields, and only 7% considered their fields as potential sources of mosquitoes. Two thirds were uninformed of any effects that agricultural pesticides may have on mosquitoes, and three quarters had never heard of resistance in malaria mosquitoes. Experts from various sectors acknowledged that agricultural pesticides might impact malaria control through increasing resistance. They did, however, emphasize the importance of crop protection and advo- cated for the use of pesticides sparingly and non-chemical approaches. Farmers learnt how to discriminate between malaria vectors and non-vectors, identify agricultural pests and diseases, choose and use pesticides effectively, and conduct resistance tests during the participatory workshops. Conclusion: This study emphasizes the significance of enhancing subsistence farmers’ awareness of mosquito ecol- ogy as well as merging public health and agricultural pest management measures. Participatory techniques have the potential to raise stakeholder awareness and engagement, resulting in more effective resistance management. Keywords: Agricultural pesticides, Agricultural practices, Anopheles mosquitoes, Crop pests, Insecticide resistance, Malaria, Participatory learning, Tanzania
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    Phenotypic variability and population structure analysis of Tanzanian free-range local chickens
    (BMC Veterinary Research, 2020) Mushi, James R; Chiwanga, Gaspar H; Amuzu-Aweh, Esinam N; Walugembe, Muhammed; Max, Robert A; Lamont, Susan J; Kelly, Terra R; Mollel, Esther L; Msoffe, Peter L; Dekkers, Jack; Gallardo, Rodrigo; Zhou, Huaijun; Muhairwa, Amandus P
    Background: Free-range local chickens (FRLC) farming is an important activity in Tanzania, however, they have not been well-characterized. This study aimed to phenotypically characterize three Tanzanian FRLCs and to determine their population structure. A total of 389 mature breeder chickens (324 females and 65 males) from three popular Tanzanian FRLC ecotypes (Kuchi, Morogoro-medium and Ching’wekwe) were used for the phenotypic characterization. Progenies of these chickens were utilized to assess population structure. The ecotypes were collected from four geographical zones across Tanzania: Lake, Central, Northern and Coastal zones. Body weights and linear measurements were obtained from the mature breeders, including body, neck, shanks, wingspan, chest girth, and shank girth. Descriptive statistics were utilized to characterize the chickens. Correlations between the linear measurements and differences among the means of measured linear traits between ecotypes and between sexes were assessed. A total of 1399 progeny chicks were genotyped using a chicken 600 K high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel for determination of population structure. Results: The means for most traits were significantly higher in Kuchi relative to Ching’wekwe and Morogoro- medium. However, shank length and shank girth were similar between Kuchi and Morogoro-medium females. All traits were correlated with the exception of shank girth in Morogoro-medium. Admixture analyses revealed that Morogoro-medium and Ching’wekwe clustered together as one population, separate from Kuchi. Conclusions: Phenotypic traits could be used to characterize FRLCs, however, there were variations in traits among individuals within ecotypes; therefore, complementary genomic methods should be considered to improve the characterization for selective breeding.
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    Effect of A. nilotica pods and A. lebbeck stem bark extracts on the reproductive system of male mastomysnatalensis : anti-fertility studies
    (African Journal of Biological Sciences, 2022-04-05) Mwangengwa, Lusekelo Msomba; Bakari, Gaymary George; Kanuya, Noel Lemree; Max, Robert Arsen
    The contraceptive potential of Acacia nilotica pods and Albizzia lebbeck stem bark methano lic extracts w ere ev aluated in male ro d ent pests. N inety (90) multimammate rats ( M. natalensis ) were randomized into a 3 × 3 factorial design for treatment groups (control, A. lebbeck and A. nilotica ) ( n = 10) and treatment durations (15, 30, or 60 days). Control rats consumed plain feed. Treated rats consumed feed with 2% w/ w of either of the plant extract. Following treatment, male rats were mated to untreated females before they were sedated in ether and humanely sacrificed. Assessments were done on fertility success rates (number of impregnated females), weight of testes and reproductive glands, sperm cell parameters, and testes histopathology. Fertility success rate was reduced to 0% in the A. nilotica treated rats at all the treatment durations and in the A. lebbeck treated rats after 60 days of treatment. Also, the extract-treated rats revealed a significant reduction in the testes, seminal vesicles, and epididymides weights compared to the control group. Moreover, sperm cell density and the proportions of live and progressively motile spermatozoa w ere significantly reduced and there w ere numerous damaged seminiferous tubules reflected by sloughed off germ cells, thinned germinal epithelium and widened empty lumen in the extract- treated rats. Thus, treatment with A . nilotica or A. lebbeck extract in male M . natalensis reduced their fertility success rates through distortion of testicular structure and disruption of spermatogenesis.
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    Human, animal and plant health benefits of glucosinolates and strategies for enhanced Bioactivity: a systematic review
    (MDPI, 2020) Maina, Sylvia; Misinzo, Gerald; Bakari, Gaymary; Kim, Ho-Youn
    Glucosinolates (GSs) are common anionic plant secondary metabolites in the order Brassicales. Together with glucosinolate hydrolysis products (GSHPs), they have recently gained much attention due to their biological activities and mechanisms of action. We review herein the health benefits of GSs/GSHPs, approaches to improve the plant contents, their bioavailability and bioactivity. In this review, only literature published between 2010 and March 2020 was retrieved from various scientific databases. Findings indicate that these compounds (natural, pure, synthetic, and derivatives) play an important role in human/animal health (disease therapy and prevention), plant health (defense chemicals, biofumigants/biocides), and food industries (preservatives). Overall, much interest is focused on in vitro studies as anti-cancer and antimicrobial agents. GS/GSHP levels improvement in plants utilizes mostly biotic/abiotic stresses and short periods of phytohormone application. Their availability and bioactivity are directly proportional to their contents at the source, which is affected by methods of food preparation, processing, and extraction. This review concludes that, to a greater extent, there is a need to explore and improve GS-rich sources, which should be emphasized to obtain natural bioactive compounds/active ingredients that can be included among synthetic and commercial products for use in maintaining and promoting health. Furthermore, the development of advanced research on compounds pharmacokinetics, their molecular mode of action, genetics based on biosynthesis, their uses in promoting the health of living organisms is highlighted.
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    Effect of A. nilotica pods and A. lebbeck stem bark extracts on the reproductive system of male mastomys natalensis: an anti-fertility studies
    (African journal of biological sciences, 2022) Mwangengwa, Lusekelo Msomba; Bakari, Gaymary George; Kanuya, Noel Lemree; Max, Robert Arsen
    The contraceptive potential of Acacia nilotica pods and Albizzia lebbeck stem bark methanolic extracts were evaluated in male rodent pests. Ninety (90) multimammate rats (M. natalensis) were randomized into a 3 × 3 factorial design for treatment groups (control, A. lebbeck and A. nilotica) (n = 10) and treatment durations (15, 30, or 60 days). Control rats consumed plain feed. Treated rats consumed feed with 2% w/w of either of the plant extract. Following treatment, male rats were mated to untreated females before they were sedated in ether and humanely sacrificed. Assessments were done on fertility success rates (number of impregnated females), weight of testes and reproductive glands, sperm cell parameters, and testes histopathology. Fertility success rate was reduced to 0% in the A. nilotica treated rats at all the treatment durations and in the A. lebbeck treated rats after 60 days of treatment. Also, the extract-treated rats revealed a significant reduction in the testes, seminal vesicles, and epididymides weights compared to the control group. Moreover, sperm cell density and the proportions of live and progressively motile spermatozoa were significantly reduced and there were numerous damaged seminiferous tubules reflected by sloughed off germ cells, thinned germinal epithelium and widened empty lumen in the extract- treated rats. Thus, treatment with A. nilotica or A. lebbeck extract in male M. natalensis reduced their fertility success rates through distortion of testicular structure and disruption of spermatogenesis.
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    Evaluation of stress hormone (cortisol) levels andsome biochemical parameters of pigs kept under intensive management systems in Morogoro, Tanzania
    (Journal of biology and life science, 2018) George Bakari, Gaymary; Mollel, Ester; Max, Robert Arsen; Muhairwa, Amandus P
    The worldwide increase in demand for animal products in recent decades has necessitated raising of food animals under intensive systems that have been demonstrated to cause stress to animals. A cross sectional study was carried conducted to evaluate the welfare of pigs kept under intensive system using serum cortisol levels and some biochemical parameters as indicators of stress. A total of 302 pigs, aged three months to two years, from urban and peri-urban areas of Morogoro township were purposively involved in the study which assessed farm management aspects (housing and feeding) and blood levels of cortisol and some biochemical parameters (glucose, total protein and cholesterol). Results showed that serum cortisol levels were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in pigs from the peri-urban farms than those dwelling in the urban settings. Weaner pigs and boars had the highest serum cortisol levels compared to growers, gilts and sows. Significantly high levels of plasma cholesterol (p < 0.05) were measured in boars followed by gilts and weaners all kept in the urban areas whereas insignificant differences were observed as far as plasma glucose and total proteins were concerned. Result on farm management assessment showed that urban piggery housing was of better quality than in the peri-urban and that feeding was largely influenced by local availability of the major feed ingredients such as maize bran and vegetable residues. About 80% of urban pigs were maintained on high concentrate feed due to availability of swills (restaurant leftovers) and maize bran whereas low concentrate feed with mainly vegetable residues dominated in the peri-urban settings. It is concluded that, serum cortisol levels observed in the current study were a reflection of stress to different groups of pigs kept under the intensive system and that feeds had some direct effect on biochemical parameters such as plasma cholesterol levels.
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    Cyanide in cassava varieties and people’s perception on cyanide poisoning in selected regions of Tanzania
    (Macrothink Institute, 2020) Mushumbusi, Cornelius B; Max, Robert A; Bakari, Gaymary G; Mushi, James R; Balthazary, Sakurani T
    Cassava, an important food crop in the tropical regions of the world, is known to carry varying levels of cyanogenic glucosides that are potential poison to humans. In Tanzania, cases of cyanide poisoning have been reported in many cassava producing areas. This study was launched to quantify cyanide in fresh tubers of so called “sweet” cassava varieties and to gauge peoples’ perception on cyanide poisoning in Kagera and Morogoro regions. The study employed a questionnaire survey and a cross-sectional research design to identify different cassava varieties and their cyanide content using alkaline titration method. Findings showed that cyanide content in all of the analyzed tubers were above the internationally accepted levels in human consumables. Some sweet varieties were found to be wrongly classified as sweet because their cyanide content was above acceptable limits. For the same variety tubers sampled from a lowland area had significantly higher (P < 0.01) cyanide content than those from a highland point. It was also found that the upper (slippery) parenchymal tissue had more cyanide content (P < 0.05) than the inner tissue. Nearly 80% of the studied population was unaware of cyanide poisoning, its health effects and how to reduce cyanide content prior to consumption. It is concluded that consumption of raw cassava tubers can lead to undesirable health effects despite of some of them being categorized as sweet. The public should be sensitized on the issues of cyanide in cassava and should avoid consuming raw cassava tubers as preventive measures against cyanide poisoning.
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    Exposure to salinity and light spectra regulates glucosinolates, phenolics, and antioxidant capacity of brassica carinata L. microgreens
    (MDPI, 2021-07-26) Maina, Sylvia; Ryu, Da Hye; Cho, Jwa Yeong; Jung, Da Seul; Park, Jai-Eok; Nho, Chu Won; Bakari, Gaymary; Misinzo, Gerald; Jung, Je Hyeong; Yang, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Ho-Youn
    The effect of salt treatment on Brassica carinata (BC) microgreens grown under different light wavelengths on glucosinolates (GLs) and phenolic compounds were evaluated. Quantifiable GLs were identified using ultra-high performance-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry. Extracts’ ability to activate antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)) was evaluated on human colorectal carcinoma cells (HCT116). Furthermore, BC compounds’ ability to activate expression of nuclear transcription factor-erythroid 2 related factor (Nrf2) and heme- oxygenase-1 (HO-1) proteins was examined using specific antibodies on HCT116 cells. Sinigrin (SIN) was the abundant GLs of the six compounds identified and its content together with total aliphatic GLs increased in saline conditions. Fluorescent (FL) and blue plus red (B1R1) lights were identified as stable cultivation conditions for microgreens, promoting biomass and glucobrassicin contents, whereas other identified individual and total indole GLs behaved differently in saline and non-saline environments. Blue light-emitting diodes and FL light in saline treatments mostly enhanced SIN, phenolics and antioxidant activities. The increased SOD and CAT activities render the BC microgreens suitable for lowering oxidative stress. Additionally, activation of Nrf2, and HO-1 protein expression by the GLs rich extracts, demonstrate their potential to treat and prevent oxidative stress and inflammatory disorders. Therefore, effective salt treatments and light exposure to BC microgreens present an opportunity for targeted regulation of growth and accumulation of bioactive metabolites.
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    Variation in phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of various organs of African cabbage (Cleome gynandra L.) accessions at different growth stages
    (MDPI, 2021-12-06) Maina, Sylvia; Ryu, Da Hye; Bakari, Gaymary; Misinzo, Gerald; Nho, Chu Won; Kim, Ho-Youn
    The presence of nutritional and health-benefiting compounds has increased awareness of orphan leafy vegetables such as Cleome gynandra (CG), whose phytochemicals vary among accessions and organs during growth. This study investigated the polyphenol accumulation and antioxidant activities (AOA) of eight CG accessions from the vegetative stage to the seed set stage. Plants were separated into leaves and stem (LS), flowers, and silique organs, and extracts were analyzed for total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), rutin and astragalin content, and AOA using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) and 2,2 0 -azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6- sulphonic acid) (ABTS). There were significant interaction effects of growth stages and accessions that contributed to changes in compounds content and AOA. TPC accumulated in plant generative parts, whereas flavonoids accumulated in young plant organs. HPLC profiling revealed that rutin was the most abundant compound in all organs, with flowers having the highest levels, while astragalin was only found in flowers. Silique extracts, particularly accession KF-14, recorded the highest TPC, which corresponded to the strongest radical scavenging activity in ABTS and DPPH assays and a strong linear correlation. The germplasm contained accessions with significantly different and varying levels of bioactive compounds and AOA. These findings potentiate the exploitation of CG organs such as siliques for AOA, flowers for rutin and astragalin, and young shoots for flavonoids. Moreover, the significant accumulation of the compounds in particular accessions of the germplasms suggest that such superior accessions may be useful candidates in genetic breeding programs to improve CG vegetable.