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    Improved household nutrition through home-grown produce and consumption of nutritious and healthy products
    (Sustainable Agricultural Intensification, 2022) Anitha, Seetha; Sefa, Victor Afari; Kalumikiza, Zione; Mhango, Khumbo; Mosha, Inviolate; Muzanila, Yasinta; Mwangwela, Agnes; Ochieng, Justus; Okori, Patrick; Tsusaka, Takuji W
    Undernutrition causes stunting, underweight, and wasting, and these are major health issues throughout Africa, adversely affecting the phys- ical and mental growth and development of chil- dren. High rates of stunting are seen throughout East and Southern Africa (ESA), with rates of 34% and 26% in the Africa RISING project coun- tries of Malawi and Tanzania (MoHCDGEC et al., 2016; NSO and ICF, 2017). Micronutrient defi- ciencies (e.g., iron, zinc, and calcium), described as hidden hunger, remain rife in both countries, especially among women of reproductive age, in- fants, and young children. These deficiencies have significant consequences for maternal and child health, mortality, the global burden of dis- ease, and economic development. In Malawi, for example, it is estimated that child undernutrition resulted in economic losses equivalent to 10.3% of gross domestic product in 2012. To this end, the Government of Malawi has reviewed its nutrition policy to redirect the national focus on nutrition programming and align its goals with the Malawi Growth and Development Strategy III (Government of Malawi, 2018). Tanzania has also shown commitment to addressing undernu- trition by articulation of the National Nutrition Strategy (United Republic of Tanzania, 2016). Both national policies recognize the need for multi-sectoral approaches to address malnutri- tion by promoting dietary diversity. A dietary approach needs to target the key growth window of opportunity in children, par- ticularly between 6 and 23 months of age, when growth is rapid and at risk of faltering when nu- trition is lacking (Ferguson et al., 2015). This co- incides with the weaning period and is an ideal time to introduce affordable, acceptable, and nutrient-rich foods. Dietary diversity can be improved through both nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive agricultural interventions. Nutrition-specific interventions address the immediate causes of undernutrition, i.e., inadequate diets and ill- nesses caused by nutrient deficiency. Nutrition- sensitive interventions incorporate nutrition objectives in wider disciplines; for example, ad- vice on producing crops and varieties that are rich in nutrients, and improved post-harvest processing and storage to minimize loss and im- prove quality and nutritional composition.
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    Occurrence of aflatoxins and its management in diverse cropping systems of central Tanzania
    (Springer, 2017) Seetha, Anitha; Munthali, Wills; Msere, Harry W; Swai, Elirehema; Muzanila, Yasinta; Sichone, Ethel; Tsusaka, Takuji W; Rathore, Abhishek; Okori, Patrick
    The staple crops, maize, sorghum, bambara nut, groundnut, and sunflower common in semi-arid agro-pastoral farming systems of central Tanzania are prone to aflatoxin contamination. Consumption of such crop produce, contami- nated with high levels of aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ), affects growth and health. In this paper, aflatoxin contamination in freshly harvested and stored crop produce from central Tanzania was examined, including the efficacy of aflatoxin mitigation tech- nologies on grain/kernal quality. A total of 312 farmers were recruited, trained on aflatoxin mitigation technologies, and allowed to deploy the technologies for 2 years. After 2 years, 188 of the 312 farmers were tracked to determine whether they had adopted and complied with the mitigation practices. Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin B1 contamina- tion in freshly harvested and stored grains/kernels were assessed. A. flavus frequency and aflatoxin production by fungi were assayed by examining culture characteristics and thin-layer chromatography respectively. AFB 1 was assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The average aflatoxin contamination in freshly harvested samples was 18.8 μg/kg, which is above the acceptable standard of 10 μg/kg. Contamination increased during storage to an average of 57.2 μg/kg, indicating a high exposure risk. Grains and oil- seeds from maize, sorghum, and sunflower produced in aboveground reproductive structures had relatively low afla- toxin contamination compared to those produced in geocarpic structures of groundnut and bambara nut. Farmers who adopted recommended post-harvest management practices had considerably lower aflatoxin contamination in their stored kernels/grains. Furthermore, the effects of these factors were quantified by multivariate statistical analyses. Training and behavioral changes by farmers in their post-harvest practice minimize aflatoxin contamination and improve food safety. Moreover, if non-trained farmers receive mitigation training, aflatoxin concentration is predicted to decrease by 28.9 μg/kg on average.
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    Ecological impact of salt farming in mangroves on the habitat and food sources of austruca occidentalis and littoraria subvittata
    (Elservier, 2019) Nehemia, Alex; Chen, Margaret; Kochzius, Marc; Dehairs, Frank; Brion, Natacha
    The impact of salt farming on the habitats and food sources of Austruca occidentalis and Littoraria subvittata was studied in mangroves along the coast of Tanzania using stable isotopes ( 13 C and 15 N) and sediment particle size analysis. The 13 C and 15 N stable isotope composition in mangrove leaves, sediments and invertebrate tissues, were used to evaluate whether there are differences in feeding ecology of the crab Austruca occidentalis and the snail Littoraria subvittata collected from natural mangroves and mangroves around the salt ponds. Organic C, total N content and particle size distribution in sediments were used to assess if there are differences in habitat characteristics of mangroves around the salt ponds. Mangrove leaves and sediments were found to be 13 C en- riched around salt ponds compared to those from natural mangroves. Likewise the macroinvertebrates collected from mangroves around salt ponds were found be enriched in 13 C relative to undisturbed mangroves. In addition, mangrove sediments around salt ponds were poorer in organic carbon and nitrogen and had more sand content compared to sediments from natural mangroves. These results indicate that salt pond activities have contributed to the modification of the habitats of macroinvertebrates by causing δ 13 C stable isotopes enrichment and al- teration of sediment characteristics in the ecosystem.
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    Drivers of millet consumption among school aged children in central Tanzania
    (Frontiers, 2021) Chande, Monica; Muhimbula, Happiness; Mremi, Ruth; Muzanila, Yasinta C; Kumwenda, Nelson C; Msuya, John; Msere, Harry; Bekunda, Mateete; Okori, Patrick; Gichohi-Wainaina, Wanjiku N
    Background: Iron and zinc deficiency are common public health problems in low-income countries largely due to poor consumption of iron and zinc rich foods. It has previously been observed that 57% of school aged children (SAC) in Tanzania suffer from anemia. In addition, estimates indicate that over 25% of the population have inadequate zinc intake. Pearl millet is an example of a nutrient dense, resilient cereal crop, that can be promoted to diversify diets and combat iron and zinc deficiency. This study overall aim was to increase pearl millet consumption among school aged (5 – 12 years) children. As part of the study, we investigated, the drivers of food choice relating to pearl millet consumption. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional study of randomly selected households in Kongwa district, Dodoma region of Tanzania. In total, 128 women of reproductive age (20 – 49 years) were randomly selected for the study. A study questionnaire consisting of 66 items, was developed and validated. The constructs in the questionnaire were categorized in two groups: internal and external factors. Respondents were asked to indicate their level of agreement or disagreement with statements read to them by interviewers. The scores on intention and behavior constructs were based on the number of times caregivers intended to, or had fed their school going children with pearl millet in the referent month. Intention was considered high if it was higher than the median intention score of the group, and low if it was equal to or lower than the median scores. Correlations and multiple linear regressions were performed to measure association between constructs and to identify predictive constructs. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for score comparison. Results: There was a significant difference between intention and behavior among those who did not consume pearl millet (P = 0.003), and those who consumed pearl millet two or more times a week, in the same month (P = 0.01). Knowledge was significantly correlated with behavior identity (ρ = 0.58, P = 0.001), while health behavior identity was significantly correlated with intention (ρ = 0.31, P = 0.001). Intention of caregivers was significantly and positively correlated (ρ = 0.44, P = 0.001) with and predicted consumption of pearl millet (ρ = 0.87, P = 0.067).
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    Reducing child undernutrition through dietary diversification, reduced aflatoxin exposure, and improved hygiene practices: the immediate impacts in central Tanzania
    (Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, LLC., 2019) Anitha, Seetha; Muzanila, Yasinta; Tsusaka, Takuji W; Kachulu, Lizzie; Kumwenda, Nelson; Musoke, Mike; Swai, Elirehema; Shija, Jackson; Siambi, Moses; Monyo, Emmanuel S; Bekunda, Mateete; Okori, Patrick
    The study aimed to quantify the immediate effects of dietary diversification, food safety, and hygiene interventions on child undernutrition in four rural villages in Kongwa district of cen- tral Tanzania. One hundred mothers with their children of less than 24 months old were recruited for this study. The differ- ence-in-difference (DID) method was used to assess the effects of intensive intervention through a learning-by-doing process on the topic of aflatoxin free diversified food utilization and improved hygiene practices. Periodic anthropometric measure- ments were conducted on the 0th, 7th, 14th, and 21st days, and DID estimator showed the significant and positive average marginal effects of the intervention on Z-Scores being 0.459, 0.252, and 0.493 for wasting, stunting, and underweight, respectively. Notably, at the end of the study, the mean aflatoxin M 1 level in urine samples decreased by 64% in the intervention group, while it decreased by 11% in the control group. The study provides quantitative evidence on intensive 21-day training for mothers incorporating integrated technol- ogies yielded positive impacts on their children’s nutritional outcomes.
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    Genetic erosion in the snail littoraria subvittata (reid, 1986) due to mangrove deforestation
    (Journal of molluscan studies, 2016) Nehemia, Alex; Huyghe, Filip; Kochzius, Marc
    In tropical coastal ecosystems mangrove forests are important as feeding, spawning, breeding and nursery grounds for many marine species. High human population pressure in coastal areas has led to the loss and deterioration of mangrove habitats. Solar salt production can affect these habitats along the East African coast. Littorinid snails live on mangrove trees, forming an important component of the mangrove ecosys- tem and have been used as bioindicators of environmental health and community stress. Littoraria subvittata is the most abundant littorinid species in mangroves along the East African coast. Partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene sequences of 298 individuals were used to assess the impact of mangrove deforestation at salt ponds on the genetic diversity and structuring of L. subvittata populations, as well as to infer the demographic history of the species. Nucleotide and haplotype diversities were found to be lower in samples from mangroves at salt ponds than in samples from natural mangroves. The mean nucleotide diversity was 0.049 ± 0.036% and 0.115 ± 0.068% in mangroves at salt ponds and natural mangroves, respectively. The mean haplotype diversity was 0.23 ± 0.14 and 0.50 ± 0.14 in mangroves at salt ponds and natural mangroves, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) detected a sig- nificant population structure (Ф st = 0.049; P < 0.0001) for the combined populations. Hierarchical AMOVA detected a significant population genetic structure only between populations from mangroves at salt ponds and natural mangroves (Φ ct = 0.022; P < 0.05), but not between any other groupings. Populations from natural mangrove sites showed a significant genetic structure (Ф st = 0.054, P < 0.0001), while populations from sites at salt ponds could not be differentiated (Ф st = −0.0026, P = 0.64). Reduced effective population size was observed in most samples from mangrove sites at salt ponds compared with natural mangrove. The direction of migrants was mostly from salt ponds to natural mangroves. These results show that salt ponds have a negative impact on the genetic diversity of L. subvittata populations and modify the population’s genetic structure.
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    Reduced genetic diversity and alteration of gene flow in a fiddler crab due to mangrove degradation
    (PLOS, 2017) Nehemia, Alex; Kochzius, Marc
    The fiddler crab Austruca occidentalis is a dominant species in mangrove forests along the East African coast. It enhances soil aeration and, through its engineering activities, makes oth- erwise-inaccessible food available for other marine organisms. Despite its importance, the hab- itat of A. occidentalis is threatened by human activities. Clearing the mangroves for salt farming and selective logging of mangroves trees continue to jeopardise mangrove ecosystems in the Western Indian Ocean. This study aims to use partial mitochondrial COI gene sequences and nuclear microsatellites to determine whether salt farming activities in mangroves have a nega- tive impact on the genetic diversity and gene flow of A. occidentalis collected along the Tanza- nia coast. The level of genetic diversity for both mitochondrial DNA and nuclear microsatellites are relatively lower in samples from salt ponds compared to natural mangrove sites. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) among all populations showed low but significant differentia- tion (COI: F st = 0.022, P < 0.05; microsatellites: F st = 0.022, P < 0.001). A hierarchical AMOVA indicates lower but significant genetic differentiation among populations from salt ponds and natural mangroves sites (COI: F ct = 0.033, P < 0.05; microsatellites: F ct = 0.018, P = < 0.01). These results indicate that salt farming has a significant negative impact on the genetic diver- sity of A. occidentalis. Since higher genetic diversity contributes to a stable population, restoring the cleared habitats might be the most effective measures for the conservation of genetic diver- sity and hence adaptive potential to environmental change in this species.
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    Effect of genotype and genotype by environment interaction on total cyanide content, fresh root, and starch yield in farmer-­preferred cassava landraces in Tanzania
    (Wiley Periodicals, Inc, 2016) Mtunguja, Mariam K; Laswai, Henry S; Kanju, Edward; Ndunguru, Joseph; Muzanila, Yasinta C
    High starch yield is the most important trait for commercialized cassava starch production. Furthermore, cyanide present in cassava roots poses a health chal- lenge in the use of cassava for food. Cassava genotypes have varying maturity periods that are also environmental dependent. This study aimed at identifying suitable cultivars and optimum time of harvest to maximize starch production across three environments. The study found significant difference between geno- types, locations, harvest period, and all the interactions (P ≤ 0.001) for all traits analyzed. Kiroba recorded high starch yields of 17.4, 12.7, and 8.2 t ha −1 at Chambezi, Amani, and Magadu, respectively. Kilusungu recorded highest cyanide content of 300–400 ppm across all locations but Kiroba recorded highest values of 800 ppm, 15 months after planting at Chambezi. Genotype by environment (GGE) biplot analysis revealed that Kiroba was a superior cultivar in terms of starch yield. Kilusungu recorded highest cyanide content and average starch yield, therefore suitable for use in starch production. The study confirmed effect of genotype and genotype by environment interaction, Kiroba cultivar was su- perior in terms of starch yield and maximum starch yield was obtained at 9 months after planting. Nyamkagile and Kibandameno had the lowest cyanide content across all environments.
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    Implications of institutional interplay on land management: A case of traditional land tenure and formal laws in the Uluguru Mountains, Tanzania
    (Elsevier, 2023-03) Malisa, Emmanuel Timothy; Mahonge, Christopher Paul
    Despite land management efforts since colonial times in the Uluguru Mountains, land degradation persists. Formal land laws and traditional land tenure system were examined to show the implications of formal and informal institutional interplay on land management. Participatory rural appraisal and interviews were employed to collect data. Content analysis and descriptive statistics were used for qualitative and quantitative data respectively. The study brings to light multi-faceted institutional interactions demonstrated by interplay between formal land laws and the traditional land tenure system, with each type of institutions influencing the other. Predominant form of land tenure regime in the Uluguru Mountains is individual land property. In precolonial, colonial and the immediate post-independence eras, clan-based land tenure regime and interinstitutional conflict dominated. Individual land property can enhance land management as it can enhance land security. However, it does not guarantee conservation of farmland water sources. Arguably, the implications of land tenure regimes on land management are not adequately explained by the property rights theory as the theory rejects rationalities other than that of maximizing individual utility, which is contrary to the study findings. There is a need for forming/strengthening institutions for regulating water sources in individually owned farmland.
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    Distribution and regeneration status of Vitex payos (Lour.) Merr. in Kenyan drylands
    (Journal of Horticulture and Forestry, 2014-10) Kimondo, James Munga; Agea, Jacob Godfrey; Okia, Clement Akais; Dino, Andrew Owiso; Abohassan, Refaat Atalla Ahmed; Mulatya, Jackson; Teklehaimanot, Zewge
    We investigated the population structure and regeneration status of Vitex payos (Lour.) Merr. in Kenyan drylands. The study quantified the spatial distribution pattern of V. payos tree populations in their natural range; and assessed their regeneration status to determine the stability of the populations Woodlands and farm inventories were conducted in Mbeere, Mwingi and Kitui districts of the Eastern Province of Kenya. The nearest-neighbour sampling method was used to determine tree density and distribution of V. payos in the study sites. The number of seedlings and saplings were counted. The diameters, crown diameter, and tree heights of sampled trees were measured. These morphological parameters were summarized on per hectare basis. The patterns of distribution of V. payos trees showed an aggregation of trees on farms and bushes. Tree densities ranged from 1.6 on farmlands to 20.3 trees per ha in the woodlands. The expected mean distances between nearest neighbouring trees were higher than the observed values on all sites, confirming that V. payos trees were more aggregated than randomly dispersed. The mean tree heights varied from < 5 m to > 9 m cross study sites. The sampled populations were dominated by trees (55%) within the range of 10 to 20 cm dbh. Highhest numbers of seedlings from all origins were recorded in the bushes in Kitui and Mbeere districts 101 and 78 seedlings per hectare, respectively. Sapling population densities were generally low.
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    Low sensitivity of paraHIT-f rapid malaria test among patients with fever in rural health centers, Northern Tanzania
    (J Infect Dev Ctries, 2011) Kweka, Eliningaya J.; Lowassa, Asanterabi; Msangi, Shandala; Kimaro, Epiphania E.; Lyatuu, Ester E.; Mwang’onde, Beda J.; Mahande, Aneth M.; Mazigo, Humphrey D.
    Introduction: Several rapid diagnostic tools for malaria are currently available in local markets. However, diagnostic accuracy varies widely. The present study was conducted to evaluate a cheaply and easily available rapid diagnostic malaria test (ParaHIT-f) in rural Tanzania. Methodology: Participants presenting with fever at health centers in the Kilimanjaro and Manyara regions were eligible. Parasitological thin and thick smears were examined from finger-prick blood samples and compared to ParaHIT-f test results. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were calculated using microscopic parasitological examination as the gold standard. Results: In total, 236/743 (31.8%) individuals had a positive malaria microscopy, and 25/715 (3.4%) were positive in the rapid diagnostic test. The sensitivity of ParaHIT-f was 10.7% (95% CI, 6.7-14.7) and specificity was 100% (95% CI, 97.4-102), with positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) of 100% (95% CI, 99.1-100.2) and 70.9% (95% CI, 66.9-74.9) respectively. Sensitivity of ParaHIT-f increased with increasing P. falciparum density (P > 0.003) from 5.8% (95% CI, 0-12.9) at < 100 parasites/μl to 20.5% (95% CI, 13.5-27) at ≥ 100 parasites/μl. Conclusions: Sensitivity of the ParaHIT-f rapid test was very low in this setting, therefore concomitant use of rapid diagnostic tests and microscopy is recommended. In the case of positive test results, confirmation by parasitological techniques is not necessary. Further monitoring of ParaHIT-f in various epidemiological settings in Tanzania is warranted.
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    Physiochemical and nutritional characterization of vitex payos (Lour.) Merr. (Verbenaceae): an indigenous fruit tree of Eastern Africa
    (2012-10-23) Kimondo, James Munga; Agea, Jacob Godfrey; Okia, Clement Akais; Abohassan, Refaat Atalla Ahmed; Ndeunyema, Elizabeth T. N. Nghitoolwa; Woiso, Dino Andrew; Teklehaimanot, Zewge; Mulatya, Jackson
    In the dry areas, indigenous fruits become important staples when cereals harvested are inadequate to support populations. Farmers in these areas have identified many of the handicaps in domestication but there is still need for inputs from the food industry into identification of the desirable traits and characteristics of potentially novel food. The purpose of this study was to assess the nutrient content of one edible wild fruit, Vitex payos that has been identified as a top priority species among the inhabitants of drylands of Kenya for domestication. The proximate, minerals and vitamin content were determined. Results showed that the fruit did contain useful quantities of potassium, manganese, phosphorus and vitamin C. Besides, sodium, magnesium and calcium were also present in minute quantities.
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    A case report of a typhoid fever outbreak with an uncommon vehicle and source of salmonella enterica serotype typhi
    (Scientific research and community, 2021-01-19) Mushi, Douglas W.
    Two goat caretakers aged 19 and 25 years old were infected with Salmonella enterica serovar typhi (S. typhi); both had eaten raw carrots from a garden enriched with goat faeces in typhoid endemic region of Morogoro, Tanzania. S. typhi strains isolated from garden soils and carrots proved to be from goat faeces. This data provide evidence for the spread of typhoid fever through carrots contaminated by faeces from goats contained transient S. typhi.
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    Impediments, opportunities and strategies to enhance trade of wild and semi-wild food plants in Bunyoro- Kitara Kingdom, Uganda
    (African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2013-06) Agea, Jacob Godfrey; Obaa, Bernard Bonton; Kimondo, James Munga; Okia, Clement Akais; Isubikalu, Prossy; Woiso, Dino Andrew; Obua, Joseph; Teklehaimanot, Zewge
    This study examined the impediments, opportunities and strategies to enhance trade of wild and semi-wild food plants (WSWFPs) in Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom, Uganda. Semi-structured questionnaire was administered face-to-face to sixty six (66) traders of WSWFPs in the formal markets: five (5) mobile hawkers and eleven (11) home-based/roadside traders. As a result of their small number, all traders that were found selling WSWFPs were interviewed. Data were analysed using simple descriptive statistics in excel spreadsheet and MINITAB statistical package. A number of challenges including high perishability, market dues, inaccurate consumers’ perceptions, seasonal shortfalls and unreliable supply, unorganized markets, little or no value addition, limited market information, and the inexistence of market promotional activities affected the trade in WSWFPs. However, the growing market demands, increasing focus of most service providers in creating awareness on WSWFPs, ever-changing perception on nutritional values of WSWFPs by the public, current government emphasis on value addition of traded agricultural products, little or no capital requirement for starting up trade in WSWFPs, and absence of restrictive regulations on sale of WSWFPs were regarded as good opportunities that could be exploited to enhance trade in WSWFPs. Key strategies for improved marketing WSWFPs included among other things, training gatherers and traders on value adding activities prior to sale, deliberate investment in promotional and awareness campaigns to expose the hidden benefits of WSWFPs, scrapping market dues levied on traders selling WSWFPs, helping gatherers and sellers to organise themselves to form viable supply and market groups, linking gatherers and sellers to good markets, as well as providing them with available market information. There is thus, a need for concerted efforts to implement some of these feasible marketing strategies to improve on the markets of WSWFPs in the kingdom.
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    Potentials of and threats to traditional institutions for community based biodiversity management in dryland areas of lower Moshi, Tanzania
    (Journal of Forest Science, 2009-12) Woiso, Dino Andrew; Shemdoe, Riziki Silas; Kayeye, Heri
    Dryland species and ecosystems have developed unique strategies to cope with low and sporadic rainfall. They are highly resilient and recover quickly from prevailing disturbances such as fires, herbivore pressure and drought. Dryland people have engineered pastoral and farming systems, which are adapted to these conditions and have sustained the livelihoods of dryland people for centuries. In this article, we present the status of potentials and threats to dryland biodiversity and explore options for its conservation and sustainable use. Findings of the research can be summarized as follows: (i) The ecosystem goods and services are highly valued by the community but mechanism for wise use of the resources has disappeared, (ii) forests are under the ownership of the government but the local community is the realistic custodian of the forests through village leaderships and environmental committees; (iii) the immediate major threat to dryland biodiversity held in the forests appears to be the degradation of ecosystems and habitats caused by new and powerful forces of environmental degradation such as large scale irrigation of rice farms, poverty-induced overexploitation of natural resources, and disappearance and ignorance of traditional institutions for management of dryland biodiversity. These new forms of disturbances often overpower the legendary resilience of dryland ecosystems and constitute potentially serious threats to dryland biodiversity. Forests, wetlands and oases all of which are micro hot spots of dryland biodiversity, appear to be particularly vulnerable hence the need to set up some rules and regulations for sustainable utilization of these resources.
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    Reducing child undernutrition through dietary diversification, reduced aflatoxin exposure, and improved hygiene practices: the immediate impacts in central Tanzania
    (Routledge Taylor and Francis Group, 2020) Anitha, Seetha; Muzanila, Yasinta; Tsusaka, Takuji W.; Kachulu, Lizzie; Kumwenda, Nelson; Musoke, Mike; Swai, Elirehema; Shija, Jackson; Siambi, Moses; Bekunda, Mateete; Okori, Patrick; Monyo, Emmanuel S.
    The study aimed to quantify the immediate effects of dietary diversification, food safety, and hygiene interventions on child undernutrition in four rural villages in Kongwa district of cen- tral Tanzania. One hundred mothers with their children of less than 24 months old were recruited for this study. The differ- ence-in-difference (DID) method was used to assess the effects of intensive intervention through a learning-by-doing process on the topic of aflatoxin free diversified food utilization and improved hygiene practices. Periodic anthropometric measure- ments were conducted on the 0th, 7th, 14th, and 21st days, and DID estimator showed the significant and positive average marginal effects of the intervention on Z-Scores being 0.459, 0.252, and 0.493 for wasting, stunting, and underweight, respectively. Notably, at the end of the study, the mean aflatoxin M 1 level in urine samples decreased by 64% in the intervention group, while it decreased by 11% in the control group. The study provides quantitative evidence on intensive 21-day training for mothers incorporating integrated technol- ogies yielded positive impacts on their children’s nutritional outcomes.
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    The impact of human cysticercosis in Northern Tanzania
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2014-04) Mwang’onde, Beda John; Chacha, Mwita; Nkwengulila, Gamba
    Human cysticercosis (HCC) is an emerging threat to public health in endemic resource poor countries and is one of the main causes of late onset epilepsy. The epidemiology, public health and socioecomic impacts of HCC in northern Tanzania, an area with high incidences of epilepsy, is reported. Sera of 1051individuals from 25 villages in Mbulu district were tested for cysticercosis circulating antibodies using Cysticercus WB IgG assay. A subset (25 persons) of cysticercosis seropositives were scanned for NCC by cCT scan. Questionnaires, observations and docummentary reviews were used to obtain information on public health and social costs. The Disability Adjusted Life Year was used to estimate the health burden of HCC. About 16.3% of the participants were positive to cysticercosis circulating antibodies. Of the 25 cysticercosis seropositive persons, 76% had single to multiple NCC suggestive lesions. Of the 19 persons found with NCC suggestive lesions, 14 (56%) had epileptic siesures. The direct and indirect losses due to Taenia solium cysticercosis was US $ 1.37 million of which 53.6% was due to HCC. The monetary burden per case of HCC amounted to US $ 209 per year. The average number of DALYs imposed due to HCC was 2.2 per 1000 population per year. The prevalence and the impact of HCC in Mbulu district is of increasing concern and calls for immediate deployment of intervention measures.
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    Comparative analysis of selected factors affecting fruit phenotype and yield of sclerocarya birrea in Tanzania
    (Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2014) Andrew, Woiso D.
    Knowledge of fruit physical properties and yield is imperative for trees with commercial domestication prospects like Sclerocarya birrea. This study assessed individual fruit weight and diameter as well as yield per tree for the three subspecies of Sclerocarya from two types of land use (farmland and wild). Ten female trees were randomly selected from on-farm and wild sites for each subspecies. From each tree, diameter and weight of 50 randomly selected fruits were measured during a peak fruiting while all fruits per tree were counted and recorded throughout the entire fruiting season for two consecutive years. Results showed that subspecies multifoliolata had significantly heavier fruits and more yield than subspecies birrea and caffra (p < 0.001) Fruits from subspecies birrea were significantly larger than those from the other two subspecies (p < 0.001).Trees from the wild population yielded more fruits that were also heavier that those from on-farm but the difference was only significant for subspecies multifoliolata (p < 0.001) Fruits from on-farm population of subspecies birrea were significantly the largest in diameter (p < 0.001). There was a strong relationship between fruit properties with crown diameter &dbh; and between yield and crown diameter while a decline in rainfall reduced fruit yield across the species and land use. Our results indicate that fruit physical properties and yield have allometric relationship with tree size structure and they vary with rainfall, type of subspecies and probably pollination intensity but not with farmers’ selection pressure and intervention.
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    Summer season waterfowl species diversity at Katavi national park in Tanzania
    (Tanzania Journal of Natural and Applied Science, 2014-02-07) Ligate, Elly Josephat; Kitogwa, Herman Batiko; Msola, David Kassian
    This study on Waterfowl species diversity, richness and evenness was conducted at Katavi National park in Tanzania in summer season of 2011.The study focused at surveying on how water availability, primary productivity and vegetation cover affect the diversity of Waterfowl in Lake Chada and Katavi. Point count technique was used to count Waterfowl from seven stations established around the perimeter of each Lake. Data revealed that the correlation coefficients (r) for water availability were 0.4019 and 0.3122; a value for primary productivity was 0.3437 and 0.7537 and for the vegetation cover were 0.3437 and 0.04968 for the respective Chada and Katavi Lakes. Species richness accounted for 2.6634 and 4.7079 for Lake Chada and Katavi respectively. For the case of Species evenness (℮) the value for Lake Chada was 0.5770 while Lake Katavi had 0.6260. The study found also that, there was a difference in waterfowl species diversity, richness and evenness between the two surveyed Lakes.It implies that both biotic and abiotic factors affect species diversity differently at different spatial heterogeneity. Lake Katavi has higher species richness and evenness compared to Lake Chada. The study concludes that variation in ecological factors affects the distribution and abundance of Waterfowl species during summer season at the park.