Enhancing protection of Dar es Salaam quaternary aquifer: Groundwater recharge assessment.

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Water balance for Dar es Salaam Quaternary coastal aquifer (DQCA) was calculated according to the method of Thornthwaite and Mather. Monthly potential evapotranspiration estimates were calculated from 39 years (1971–2009) of routine meteorological data using Penman-Monteith, Thornthwaite, Hargreaves and Hamon methods. Results were compared in order to show possible differences that could be attributed to the methods. Determination of groundwater recharge rates gave a mean value of 184 mm year -1 which is equivalent to 71.39 x 10 6 m 3 year -1 indicating that 16.5% of the long term average annual precipitation of 1114 mm ends up as groundwater recharge. Groundwater abstraction from DQCA was estimated to be 69.3 x 10 6 m 3 year -1 . These results are alarming in two aspects: high abstraction rate and the increasing trend of borehole drilling. Groundwater abstraction which is nearly equal to the amount of the groundwater recharge is far greater than the least conservative sustainable yield calculated at 70% (equivalent to 49.97 x 10 6 m 3 year -1 ).


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Quaternary Aquifer, Groundwater, Groundwater assessment, Dar es Salaam