Geospatial application on mapping groundwater recharge zones in Makutupora basin, Tanzania.

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Elsevier Ltd


Management of groundwater systems is indispensable to countries that depend on groundwater as the primary source of community water supply (e.g. Dodoma, Tanzania). Urbanization and industrialization lead to groundwater over-pumping and reduced recharge zones in the basin. This study used Remote Sensing and geo- spatial datasets to determine the groundwater recharge zones (GWRZ) followed by sensitivity analysis to identify the influence of geologic and hydrologic factors on the variation of the GWRZ in the case of the Makutupora basin, Tanzania. The implementation of weighted overlay analysis aimed to determine the GWRZ using different the- matic maps created from land use land cover (LULC), drainage density, lithology, lineament density, rainfall, slope and soil datasets. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and multi-influencing factor (MIF) are the multi- criteria decision analysis (MCDA) implemented to assign weights to the selected influencing factors. Either, the map removal method was implemented for the sensitivity analysis. Pumping wells were overlaid to validate the GWRZ map determined. The overlay of seven thematic maps resulted in the GWRZ map being categorized as good (35.79% for AHP and 21.68% for MIF), moderate (40.98% for AHP and 58.39% for MIF) and poor (23.22% for AHP and 19.95% for MIF). Good recharge potential areas lie in an area characterized by thick forest, high lineament and water bodies around the northwestern and central-eastern side of the basin. Validation of GWRZ indicated that 33.33% for AHP and 30% for MIF are in good GWRZ, 41.6% for AHP and 28% for MIF are in moderate GWRZ and 25% for AHP and 42% for MIF are in poor GWRZ. The sensitivity analysis revealed the high effect of GWRZ on the removal of the LULC, lithology and lineament thematic layer in both AHP and MIF- generated GWRZ maps. This implies that the expansion of settlements is not considering recharge zone protection. Lineaments are also a very important factor governing groundwater recharge which needs to be protected. The result displays that urbanization dramatically reduced the potential area for groundwater recharge. Protecting the potential recharge zone from any activity that reduces the recharge is vital for the sustainability of groundwater.


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Analytical hierarchy process, Groundwater recharge zone, Makutupora basin, Multi-influencing factor, Tanzania