Groundwater exploitation and recharge rate estimation of a quaternary sand aquifer in Dar-es-Salaam area, Tanzania

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Dar-es-Salaam City gets water supply from surface water and groundwater. The groundwater is used to supplement surface water supply and has increasingly become a major source of water supply in the city. The study area comprises three major parts: the central coastal plain with quaternary fluvial–deltaic sediments, the deltaic Mio-Pliocene clay-bound sands and gravels in the north- west and southeast and the Lower Miocene fluviatile sandstones of Pugu Hills in the west of the study area. The main objective of this study was to quantify the integrated water balance. The major source of renewable groundwater in the aquifer is rainfall. Hence, the average recharge of 256.2 mm/year (for the year 2006) to the aquifer was estimated using the balance method of Thornthwaite and Mather, which is equal to 99.4 hm 3 /year for the whole alluvial aquifer. This value was balanced with total groundwater abstraction of 8.59 hm 3 /year, baseflow to rivers of 75.7 hm 3 /year and discharge into the sea (15.11 hm 3 /year).


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Quaternary aquifer, Groundwater exploitation, Groundwater recharge, River discharge, Dar es Salaam