Pattern analysis of substandard and inadequate distribution of educational resources in urban–rural areas of Abbottabad, Pakistan


Despite an extensive system of public schools, Abbottabad, Pakistan has a chronically low literacy rate. A factor contributing to these low literacy rates might be a spatial mismatch between public schools and dense settlements in fast-growing urban and semi-urban areas of this municipal region. To test this proposition, the locations of 153 public schools were collected using hand-held GPS devices to create a geo-database, and a road network was created from the open street map and Google imagery. Nearest neighbor, K-function, Spearman’s Rho, and directional analyses were applied to this data to overcome the limitations of sparse geospatial data. A point pattern analysis shows that more than 50% of secondary schools were clustered south of the city while most of the built-up area was in the north. Localizing Geospatial data, spatial restructuring, and reorganization of schools in the study area would support rational planning and enhance student access to school facilities.



Spatial mismatch, Point pattern analysis, Classification, Public schools, Abbottabad


Hashir, T., Balz, T., Sumari, N. S., Shan, R., & Tanweer. 2019. Pattern Analysis of Substandard and Inadequate Distribution of Educational Resources in Urban-Rural Areas of Abbottabad, Pakistan. GeoJournal: