Sokoine University of Agriculture

Infection of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, with two species of entomopathogenic fungi: effects of concentration, co-formulation, exposure time and persistence

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dc.contributor.author Mnyone, L. L.
dc.contributor.author Kirby, M. J.
dc.contributor.author Lwetoijera, D. W.
dc.contributor.author Mpingwa, M. W.
dc.contributor.author Takken, W.
dc.contributor.author Russell, T. L.
dc.contributor.author Knols, B. G.
dc.date.accessioned 2018-06-13T08:39:57Z
dc.date.available 2018-06-13T08:39:57Z
dc.date.issued 2009-12-23
dc.identifier.issn 1475-2875
dc.identifier.uri http://www.suaire.suanet.ac.tz:8080/xmlui/handle/123456789/2302
dc.description Malaria Journal Open Access Research en_US
dc.description.abstract Entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana isolates have been shown to infect and reduce the survival of mosquito vectors. Methods Here four different bioassays were conducted to study the effect of conidia concentration, co-formulation, exposure time and persistence of the isolates M. anisopliae ICIPE-30 and B. bassiana I93-925 on infection and survival rates of female Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto. Test concentrations and exposure times ranged between 1 × 107 - 4 × 1010 conidia m-2 and 15 min - 6 h. In co-formulations, 2 × 1010 conidia m-2 of both fungus isolates were mixed at ratios of 4:1, 2:1, 1:1,1:0, 0:1, 1:2 and 1:4. To determine persistence, mosquitoes were exposed to surfaces treated 1, 14 or 28 d previously, with conidia concentrations of 2 × 109, 2 × 1010 or 4 × 1010. Results Mosquito survival varied with conidia concentration; 2 × 1010 conidia m-2 was the concentration above which no further reductions in survival were detectable for both isolates of fungus. The survival of mosquitoes exposed to single and co-formulated treatments was similar and no synergistic or additive effects were observed. Mosquitoes were infected within 30 min and longer exposure times did not result in a more rapid killing effect. Fifteen min exposure still achieved considerable mortality rates (100% mortality by 14 d) of mosquitoes, but at lower speed than with 30 min exposure (100% mortality by 9 d). Conidia remained infective up to 28 d post-application but higher concentrations did not increase persistence. Conclusion Both fungus isolates are effective and persistent at low concentrations and short exposure times. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher BioMed Central en_US
dc.subject Malaria en_US
dc.subject Malaria Transmission en_US
dc.subject Indoor Residual Spray en_US
dc.subject Entomopathogenic Fungus en_US
dc.subject Conidium Concentration en_US
dc.title Infection of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, with two species of entomopathogenic fungi: effects of concentration, co-formulation, exposure time and persistence en_US
dc.type Article en_US
dc.url https://malariajournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1475-2875-8-309 en_US


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