Sokoine University of Agriculture

Natural gas extraction and gendered access to benefits among host communities in Kilwa district, Tanzania

Show simple item record Mwakyambiki, S. E. 2019-10-31T12:05:39Z 2019-10-31T12:05:39Z 2018
dc.description PhD Thesis en_US
dc.description.abstract Since adoption of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) of 1992, demand for access and benefits sharing that arise from utilisation of natural resources have gained unprecedented momentum. Unfortunately, researchers have been examining potential benefits sharing of natural gas much more at nation level, excluding communities living close to extraction sites. The study on which this thesis is based addressed the gap by using a gender lens whereby the analyses were framed to understand whether benefits sharing were gendered. The research examined gendered sharing of benefits that arise from utilisation of natural gas resources among communities living close to the extraction sites. A cross-sectional study design was employed to collect quantitative and qualitative data from 373 households in Kilwa District. Qualitative data were analysed using content analysis. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were used to analyse quantitative data including socio demographic characteristics, division of gender roles and distribution of benefits. Binary logistic regression was used to examine factors influencing extractive companies that share benefits with communities. An index scale was constructed to gauge gendered access to direct and indirect access to benefits. Moreover, host communities’ attitudes were measured on a five-point Likert scale, and factors influencing community’s attitudes were assessed using ordinal logistic regression. It was found that, generally, the majority of men and women had opinion that their gender roles were not changed by extractive companies. However, g radual shift of women’s and men’s roles was obse rved women were engaged in paid work created by extractive companies other women were engage d in fish business , fish storage and ice blocks making business due to availability of electrical power produced by natural gas. MMen’s workload increased due to restriction of access to fishing areas by extractive companies. It was evident that factors influencing extractive companies to share benefits with communities included distance, education and legitimacy (p < 0.05). It was found further that communities had higher expectations in getting employment opportunities and improvement in health, water and electricity services. The majority of respondents had low level of access to direct benefits. On the other hand, communities had higher level of access to indirect benefits, due to availability of education opportunities and electricity power which enabled them to be engaged in various income generating activities. Community in the study area had negative attitude towards benefit sharing. Sex, distance from home to extraction activities, access to electricity, and relationship between community and extractive companies were found to be important predictors of community attitude (p < 0.05). It is recommended that the Government and extractive companies should improve social wellbeing of host communities through evaluating the essential roles that women and men perform. Labour saving support including fishing gears, use of electricity to establish fish processing factories, supply of enough water, utilising local markets and improving health services would reduce workload. The extractive companies and the Government should take into consideration host community expectations as starting points for improving access to benefits. Government, in collaboration with extractive companies, should establish a foundation/organisation which would ensure sustainable utilisation of service levy. Extractive companies and Policy makers should prepare strategies to overcome communities’ negative attitudes towards sharing benefits in order to minimize chances of resource curse. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship HESLB en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher Sokoine University of Agriculture en_US
dc.subject Natural gas extraction en_US
dc.subject Gas extraction en_US
dc.subject Gas en_US
dc.subject Gendered access en_US
dc.subject Host communities en_US
dc.subject Kilwa district en_US
dc.subject Tanzania en_US
dc.title Natural gas extraction and gendered access to benefits among host communities in Kilwa district, Tanzania en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US

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