Sokoine University of Agriculture

Evolution and performance of water management institutions: a case of farmer-managed irrigation schemes in Iringa Rural and Kilombero Districts, Tanzania

Show simple item record Mosha, O. B. 2017-12-11T05:38:34Z 2017-12-11T05:38:34Z 2016
dc.description.abstract Water management institutions are dynamic, evolve and change over time and space particularly when subjected to socio-cultural, economic, political and environmental factors. Despite the fact that water management institutions change over time, conflicts of water remain a central concern. The aim of the study on which this thesis is based was to provide a better understanding of changes in institutional aspects over the previous 40+ years (1970 – 2013) and their performance in managing and using water in Farmer-Managed Irrigation Schemes (FMIS) in Iringa Rural and Kilombero Districts, Tanzania. Specifically, the study intended to: (i) Examine historical dynamics in both formal and informal water management institutions over the previous 40+ years (1970 - 2013) and explore how farmers adopt, reject, modify and or synergize formal and informal institutions; (ii) Examine performance of water management institutions in FMIS in the study areas; (iii) Assess the influence of exogenous factors on water institutional change in the water sector and (iv) assess the contribution of paddy production from FMIS to household income in comparison with other livelihood activities. Data collection involved a household survey of 172 household heads, 40 key informants, four focus group discussions and direct observations. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses were undertaken. A chi-square test of independence used to determines associations between performance of eight design principles and scheme types. A binary logistic regression and a multiple linear regression models were used to determine possible determinants influencing institutional change and household income respectively. The results indicated that formal and informal water management institutions have evolved substantially over the past 40+years; and that institutional evolution and changes are the outcomes of the government efforts to address emerging challenges with respect to water demands and multiple use, and inefficiency of existing institutions to reconcile water competing claims. However, formal institutional evolution weakened social norms and traditions which in turn affected the process of water allocation and distribution negatively. Limited involvement of local users in water decisions created a sense of dispossession, imposing negative attitudes towards formal institutions. Furthermore, the findings indicated a high proportion (73-79%) of net household income derived from irrigated paddy, reflecting high dependence on irrigated agriculture. Irrigation, therefore, holds a promising future to improve the livelihood of millions of rural households and contributes to Tanzania’s economic development. The Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries should consider and make sure enough funds are allocated for irrigation, and this should be part and parcel of long term national plan for agricultural sector development. It is also recommend that policy makers and practitioners in relevant water departments and Ministry of Water and Irrigation should include locally evolved institutions while re-crafting formal institutions. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher Sokoine University of Agriculture en_US
dc.subject Water Institutions performance en_US
dc.subject Water management en_US
dc.subject Water management institutions en_US
dc.subject Irrigation Schemes en_US
dc.subject Iringa Rural District en_US
dc.subject Kilombero Districts en_US
dc.subject Tanzania en_US
dc.title Evolution and performance of water management institutions: a case of farmer-managed irrigation schemes in Iringa Rural and Kilombero Districts, Tanzania en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US

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